SOUL STRINGS
Beating the Barbarian
With the Six Non-Phyiscal Dimensions
Of Superstring Theory
 
© Copyright Akiva Lane 2012
 
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 1 - THE THREE PHILOSOPHICAL ARCHETYPES
CHAPTER 2 - HISTORY UNTIL THE GREEKS
CHAPTER 3 - HISTORY UNTIL TODAY
CHAPTER 4 – SUPERSTRINGS
CHAPTER 5 - THE 6 NON-PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS
CHAPTER 6 – CONSCIOUSNESS
APPENDIX - INSIGHTS FROM POETRY
CODA: THE NEED FOR AN ALLIANCE
 
INTRODUCTION  
                                    
For thousands of years, the saga of human history tells of empires rising and falling caused by military wars being won and lost.  But alongside these major and cataclysmic events has been another, continuous war that has been equally important, and that is the battle for Man's mind.  This other war has been a war of ideas, and has been a struggle between three major philosophies, three different ways of looking at the world.  We call these three philosophies Religious, Scientific, and Barbaric. 
 
In the first chapter we define these three philosophies, and describe the kinds of dialogues they have between them.
 
In the second and third chapters, we trace these three philosophies through Western history, seeing how they developed, combined, and alternatively rose and fell.
 
The fourth chapter describes a recent theory in theoretical physics called Superstring theory that we feel has the potential for altering the current balance among the three philosophies.
 
The fifth chapter examines further how Superstring theory - especially its notion of there being six non-physical dimensions - can be applied to some problems in science and everyday life.
 
The sixth chapter explores in greater detail what it might mean for there to be six non-physical dimensions.
 
The Appendix looks at poetry through the ages and how it reflects the changes that Man's spirit has undergone, providing insights into the nature and effects of Religion, Science, and Barbarism.
 
CHAPTER 1 - THE THREE PHILOSOPHICAL ARCHETYPES
 
In the thousands of years since Man has been on Earth, we have seen that there exists three philosophical archetypes. The three philosophies are the Religious, the Scientific, and the Barbaric.  Each person is a composite of these three philosophical personalities  in varying degrees.  Different societies and cultures at different times in history have also had a different mix and preponderance of these philosophies, and the way the philosophies have waxed and waned and intertwined with each other in past cultures has affected history through the ages. 
 
If you happen to have a religious bent, you will recall that these three philosophies are represented by the three sons of Noah: Shem (Religious), Yepeth (Scientific), and Cham (Barbaric).  Religious tradition maintains that all mankind descended from these three sons.
 
If, on the other hand, you have more of a scientific perspective, you are probably more familiar with Dostoevsky's great novel Brothers Karamazov.  The novel describes the three brothers Alyosha (Religious), Ivan (Scientific), and Dmitri (Barbaric), that also embody and represent these three philosophical personalities. 
 
One could also say that Sigmund Freud's suggested structure of the human psyche embodies these three perspectives, that he called the superego (Religious), the ego (Scientific), and the id (Barbaric). 
 
Understanding these three philosophical archetypes is important on a personal level because seeing in what balance they exist within us, and how they interact with each other, helps us understand ourselves.  In addition we can understand history better by seeing how these philosophies have interacted and combined with each other, and have gained ascendancy and receded over time in current and past cultures.
 
Let's describe and examine these three philosophical personalities.
 
Religious
 
The Religious person believes there is more to reality than the physical world that we see and touch.  He believes that in addition to the four physical dimensions of height, width, depth, and time, that there is a spiritual or metaphysical world.  Encompassing both of these worlds is an intangible and unknowable God that created the universe.  This all powerful and all knowing God expects that we act morally.  There is an absolute good and bad, right and wrong, and we are rewarded for our good deeds and punished for our bad deeds.  The religious person focuses his attention on making sure his relationships are optimum - between Man and God, parent and child, husband and wife, buyer and seller, a person and his community - in ways that have been revealed in holy books such as the Bible. People possess a spiritual entity called a soul, and there is an ineffable quality called holiness that indicates a high spiritual level and a proximity to God.  As the Bible says in Numbers "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might."
 
Scientific
 
The Scientific person focuses his attention on man's great ability to think and reason.  He feels that it is man's wondrous mind and intellect that sets him apart and above other animals.  He maintains that by putting anything under the intellectual microscope, it will reveal its mysteries, just as Science has gloriously demonstrated in the past few hundred years.  Moreover, the truth or falseness of  any proposition can be determined  by careful examination and experimentation - as exemplified by the Scientific method.  He feels that to accept as true anything that has not been perceived by the senses and passed through the rigorous filter of mental reasoning is to demean ourselves and our intellectual power, and is to succumb to superstition and unverified hocus pocus.  He points to how much that once seemed unknowable has been explained in enormous detail, and he feels it is only a matter of time before Man will understand everything.  Francis Bacon said that the best method of "searching into and discovering truth... derives axioms from the senses and particulars, rising by a gradual and unbroken ascent, so that it arrives at the most general axioms last of all.'
 
Barbarian
 
The Barbarian maintains that the goal and purpose of life is to have pleasure and to satisfy one's desires.  Wherever he feels a desire - for money, sex, food, power, honor, whatever - good and bad becomes defined in terms of how well and how completely he can fill that desire.  For him there is no other good or bad or morality.  People and objects are all mere means to facilitate this gratification.  To him there is certainly no world other than the world we see and touch and sense.  The Barbarian Personality is often focused on power and money because through these means other pleasures can be acquired. Relationships are important only in that they can be the basis of alliances in the pursuit of pleasure.  The world may be likened to a jungle, where beasts of prey stalk and hunt their next meal. Indulge yourself, at all costs, with no limits, overcoming any obstacles, is his motto.  Life is short, so gratify yourself as much as you can.
 
As the classic Barbarian Ghenghiz Khan said: "The greatest joy a man can know is to kill his enemies, take away their possessions, clasp their women in his arms, and see those women bedewed with tears."
 
These three archetypes - the Religious, Scientific, and Barbarian - are three very different philosophical perspectives at looking at life and the world.  It is rare that an individual or a culture is a pure embodiment of just one philosophy.  Most people and cultures are mixtures and amalgams of these philosophies, with varying percentages and weights of each that change over time.  Mixtures of these philosophies within a person or culture often result in dialogues between the various components, with each component trying to convince the others why its position and viewpoint is correct and the others are wrong.  If we listen carefully within ourselves - or to the dialogues that take place within our culture - we'll hear debates between these three philosophies, each vying for position, each trying to convince the others.
 
Here are examples of such debates:
 
Religious to Barbarian
 
You are self centered, selfish, immature, and short sighted.  In your desire to satisfy your cravings, you fulfill a momentary desire, but in the long run you haven't built anything of value - such as family, community, and the joy of contact with the Almighty.  By giving into your evil inclination for immediate pleasure, in the long run you will hurt yourself and destroy society.  I must always be on guard against your sneaky arguments, and can never rest assured that I've won the battle against your overtures, because it is tempting to sacrifice the future for the present.  But true joy and harmony come from the path of goodness and morality, under the eternal guidelines of the Creator of the universe.
 
Barbarian to Religious
 
Go ahead and believe in your fairy tales and be a goody-goody, you are the loser.  I love my pleasures and satisfying my passions, because it feels so good.  Your talk of goodness and the hereafter is nothing but unproven, ridiculous fantasies that keep you from enjoying life.  I might not succeed in getting all I want, but I certainly won't stop trying - and I won't let your fairy tales put me in a pleasureless straight jacket.  Restrict and deny yourself all you want, you just become easier game for my wiles, and there will be more left for me.
 
Scientific to Barbarian
 
I understand why you don't fall for those silly, unproven religious ideas about a next-world and a Creator.  But examine your ways, reflect about yourself, and use your magnificent capacity for reason to see how much better you are capable of being.  Look at your craven, depraved ways, and compare it to what you could become: a mentally aware, sophisticated, honorable, cultured, fulfilled human being.  Look in the mirror.  You can plainly see that with education, reflection, and self-examination, you can follow well-thought out goals rather than momentary whims that lead nowhere.
 
Barbarian to Scientific
 
Your head is in the clouds with your high falutin dreams.  I won't give up my pleasures for your theoretical pie-in-the-sky.  I take what I want when I want it.  I don't like delaying my gratification for one second.  You've lived in your ivory tower too long to understand my passions, and how much joy I have in conquering and taking from wimps like you.  I prefer a good steak and a beautiful woman to the prison of your mind.  I'm free and unrestricted, and love living life to the hilt.  Your utopia of thought offers nothing to me.
 
Religious to Scientific
 
I agree that the mind has great power and abilities, but it is the gift of the Almighty and must be dedicated to His service in perfecting the world.  You are naive in your underestimation of the Barbarian, and he'll overpower you just when he's fooled you into having you believe you're reformed him.  If you really used your reason correctly, you'd see there's more to life than the physical world - there's a beautiful spiritual world.  You'd see that our eternal soul has needs that the mind alone can't satisfy.  Look around you, and see evidence of the Creator and His Holiness everywhere.
 
Scientific to Religious
 
What you say has no basis in scientific fact.  Has anyone ever seen a soul under a microscope, or ever provided a mathematical equation for an Almighty Creator?  I believe in what I can prove - with experiments and mathematics - and your beliefs are nothing more than superstitions.  Eventually, all people will see that it's reasonable for us all to cooperate in a just society, with freedom and fairness for all.  I have too much self respect than to believe ideas just because they're written in an ancient book.
 
And so it goes, back and forth, in our heads throughout our lives, and in our culture for thousands of years.  Each of our personalities is some amalgam of the three archetypes, just as different cultures have had different amalgams.  The amalgams often take very interesting forms.
 
For example, let's consider some different amalgams of the religious and barbarian philosophies.  One example is the idol worshipper, so prominent in ancient society.  His religious rites often were centered on promiscuity, and mockery of the Divine, obvious Barbarian influences, yet he performed these rituals in a religious context. Another example is the religious fanatic, who gorges his passion for anger, and conquering, all in the name of a Divine call.  A more subtle example of an amalgam of the Religious and the Barbarian is someone who is outwardly religious, but is inwardly materialistic and selfish.  The religious part of him may be genuinely giving and primarily thinking of good and God.  But where the Barbarian influence has infiltrated, he thinks of himself and his own physical needs first and foremost.
 
There are also mixtures of the Scientific and Barbarian philosophies.  An example is someone highly intellectual and cultured who can prove to himself scientifically that it is correct to kill and steal, because science shows him that life is a jungle. He is especially dangerous because he may uses his scientific skills to dominate and injure others all the more effectively. 
 
An example of a Religious and Scientific combination, on the other hand, is someone who feels he has used the intellect and scientific reasoning to reveal the existence of holiness, the soul, and the Almighty in this world.
 
We are now going to go through the history of Western Man and see how these three philosophical archetypes have interacted with each other for thousands of years, philosophically and historically.  This has been an important and crucial struggle, because it has represented the struggle for man's mind, just as within each individual it represents the struggle for the person's mind, significantly determining his thoughts and actions.  Many great historical events and cultural trends have been a result of the give and take between these three philosophies.
 
CHAPTER 2 - HISTORY UNTIL THE GREEKS
 
We will now go through history to see how the three philosophical paradigms and personality archetypes - religious, scientific, and barbarian - have interacted with each other for thousands of years.
 
The Bible
 
An important source of insights regarding Man's early culture is the Bible. Whether you see the Bible as divinely inspired (religious perspective), or interesting history and mythology (scientific perspective), we can learn a great deal about Man's early cultural perspectives from the Bible.
 
The first book of the Bible, Genesis, suggests that early Man was primarily wedded to the barbarian philosophy.  It tells the story of Cain who kills his brother when he felt strong, uncontrolled emotions of jealousy.  The next several generations until the flood were selfish, criminal, and barbaric.  The Bible says:
 
"The wickedness of man was great in the earth, and the imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually (Genesis 6:5)...And the earth was corrupt before God and the earth was filled with violence (6:11)...The imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth (8:21)."
 
One doesn't get the impression that the religious and scientific perspective were in great abundance at this time, but rather that the barbarian creed of 'might makes right', and 'satisfy your desires to the hilt' were predominant.
 
The Bible then describes a flood that, from the Bible's perspective, was meant to wipe away these undesirable characters.  Noah and his three sons, Shem, Yephet, and Cham, and their wives survived the flood.  As we said before, tradition has it that this was the beginning of the three philosophies we have mentioned. 
 
Shem was religious and wanted to understand and follow God's ways. The word 'Semitic' comes from his name.  Yephet has come to be associated with the scientific mind.  He had a son named Yivon, who's name is similar to and is associated with the Ionian peninsula of Greece that became the progenitor of the scientific viewpoint. (Dostoevsky's character representing the scientific viewpoint is similarly named Ivan). And Cham is described as someone who either can't or doesn't want to control his emotions and actions. His descendants included Mitzrayim, the ancient name for Egypt, and Canaan, whose descendants were the barbarous and idol worshipping tribes occupying the part of the Middle East that came to be known as Canaan.
 
The Bible tells a story about the three sons of Noah.  After the flood, Noah raised grapes, made wine, and one night got inebriated and fell asleep.  While Noah was in this deep sleep, Cham did something terrible to his father, that the Bible doesn't spell out.  The Talmud offers two opinions as to what Cham did: either he sodomized his father (somewhat barbaric), or he castrated his father (extremely barbaric).  When Noah awoke, he realized what Cham had done to him, and angrily cursed him for his heinous behavior.  He then turned to his other two sons, and made the following prediction:
 
"God will enlarge the domain of Yephet, and he will live in the tents of Shem".
 
Many interpreters of the Bible explain this enigmatic prophesy as follows: Yephet and Shem will follow their separate, but worthwhile, paths.  Yephet will develop science and art, while Shem will develop religion, with the 'tents of Shem' referring to houses that God is worshipped in.  Noah is foreseeing that both Yephet and Shem will do quite well, expanding their relative domains, but in the end Yephet will reconcile his worldly wisdom with the spiritual wisdom of Shem, and come to live in the tents of Shem. 
 
The scientist will point out that this prediction merely shows the religious bias of the Bible.  But the religious person not only sees this as divinely inspired prophesy, but looks forward to the day that the scientist will stop belittling religion and join him in his house of worship.  (The barbarian thinks both the scientist and religious person are ridiculous to be thinking about such things when they could be pursuing wine, women, and song, or their contemporary counterparts of sex, drugs, and rock'n'roll).
 
Jews vs. Barbarians
 
The Bible then tells us how Abraham, a descendant of Shem, formulated and promulgated the religious point of view, the concept of Monotheism that maintains that there is one God and that we should serve Him and do what God wants. The first five books of the Bible, called the Pentateuch, describe how Abraham's descendants, Isaac, Jacob, and the rest of what became the Jewish people became slaves in Egypt and were then liberated to receive a revelation at Mt. Sinai of what God wanted them to do.
 
At Mt. Sinai they received commandments that forbade, for example, barbarian behavior such as killing, stealing, and committing adultery. People are commanded to treat each other well, to create a society with social justice and harmony:
 
"Justice, justice shall you follow."
 
"Love your neighbor as yourself."
 
"Do not take vengeance."
 
"Do not afflict any widow or orphan".
 
 As for the descendants of Cham who were living in Egypt and Canaan, the Bible says: "After the doings of the land of Egypt where you lived, shall you not do, and after the doings of the land of Canaan, where I bring you, shall you not do. (Leviticus 18:24)"  The Jews were admonished to turn away from those barbarian and decadent ways, and to be exemplars of the religious perspective and by example spread religion as a way of life and thought. They were told, "You shall be for Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation."
 
According to the Bible, restraining the barbarian impulse clearly depends on the fear and love of an almighty and pervasive God:
 
"What does the Lord your God require of you, but to fear the Lord your God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him, and to serve the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul, and to keep for your good the commandments of the Lord." (Deuteronomy 10:12)
 
The next 19 books of the Bible describe what the Jewish people did in the next 1000 years as they gradually spread out in the land of Canaan, that became known as Israel.  They had many successes maintaining the religious viewpoint and fighting the barbarian viewpoint.  About 450 years after entering Israel, Kind David conquered Jerusalem and his son Solomon built a glorious temple in which to worship God. There were many great writings, such as the book of Psalms, that became part of the Bible.
 
There were also times of backsliding when they were seduced by the attractions of the barbarian philosophy.  Some kings after Solomon reverted to pagan ideas. Prophets were constantly railing against the temptations of the barbarian way, with varying success.  For example, the prophet Eliyahu had a showdown with the idol worshippers on Mt. Carmel, and in the end prevailed, proclaiming: "The Lord, He is God".  There was even one king, Menassah, who during his 50 year reign outlawed the teaching of the Jewish religion and permitted only the worship of idols that were accompanied by orgies led by male and female prostitutes.
 
The Talmud says that this first temple was destroyed by the Babylonians after standing for 410 years because the Jews weren't strong enough in battling the barbarian viewpoint, and giving into 'killing, sexual immorality, and idol worship.'
 
This marks the end of the first major confrontation between two of the three main philosophies, the battle between the religious and barbarian philosophies. The religious viewpoint scored some points, and managed to spread its philosophy to some extent in the ancient world, but the barbarian viewpoint was also very popular and was often on the offensive.   
 
After 70 years of exile in Babylonia, Ezra returned to Israel with his fellow Jews, and built the second temple.  This brings us to about 350 years before the common era, and is where the 24 books of the Bible end their narrative. From here on, we have many reliable historical sources that describe the rise of the scientific perspective as espoused by the Greeks, and the confrontations they had with the barbarian and religious philosophies.
 
Greeks vs. Barbarians
 
Starting around 2500 years ago and lasting about 200 years, the Greek city states in the Ionian peninsula saw a great flowering of the human mind and spirit.  The Greeks produced, in that short time, some of the great works in literature, mathematics, and philosophy. It reached its apogee in Athens, with the philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. 
 
Socrates frequented the public places of Athens and, as recorded by his student Plato, espoused that people should examine everything, especially their own lives, with the clear and focused light of reason.  He maintained that Man has been given the great gift of mind to use relentlessly in the pursuit of wisdom and clarity.  All assumptions must be examined in the pursuit of truth.
 
"There is only one good,  knowledge, and one evil, ignorance."
 
"The life which is unexamined is not worth living".
 
He recognized that there is a strong tendency in man to be selfish, hedonistic, and barbaric, and that "Bad men live that they may eat and drink, whereas good men eat and drink that they may live."  But if a person examines himself and inquires about all he doesn't know, in time he will become educated and enlightened and have the strength to overcome the baser aspects of his being. 
 
Many of his countrymen advocated that hedonism was really the better way.  As Epicurus said: "Pleasure is the beginning and the end of living happily."
 
But we see Socrates in the Platonic dialogues, overcoming through vigorous examination, the arguments of those who maintain that it is more practical to be unvirtuous, and proving that virtue and truth are the better way and can be attained through reason.  "If we lack understanding of the beautiful and good, though we learn all else to perfection, it profits us nothing."
 
But alas, those with more barbaric inclinations sentenced Socrates to death for spreading seditious ideas among the young.  Naturally, Plato and Aristotle were concerned with how to establish governments that were virtuous and just.
 
Plato in The Republic, and Aristotle in The Politics, discuss what form of government best keeps the barbaric impulses of man at bay.   They agree that the way to battle man's dangerous barbaric tendencies is with education and a just state.  Barbarian tendencies, they felt, could be overcome with education in the path of virtue and an enlightened and strong government.
 
As Aristotle says: "It is the nature of desire not to be satisfied, and most men live only for the gratification of it.  The beginning of reform is... to train the noble sort of natures not to desire more, and to prevent the lower from getting more. " (emphasis ours)
 
Jews vs. Greeks
 
At the tail-end of Greece's golden age, Philip of Macedonia consolidated the Greek city states, and had Aristotle tutor his son Alexander.  Alexander the Great, as he came to be known,  extended the Greek empire to much of the known world.  When Alexander entered Jerusalem, there was excited expectation from both Greeks and Jews that the two enlightened peoples would become allies in their fight against barbarism. 
 
The Talmud says that when Alexander saw the Jewish High Priest who officiated over the Holy Temple in Jerusalem, Alexander got off his horse and paid homage to him, saying he had seen the High Priest many times in his dreams (though they had never met before), and the High Priest had been an inspiration to him in winning his battles.  In honor of the Greeks, the Jews that year named all their sons Alexander.
 
Such a philosophical alliance made sense, because both Jews and Greeks believed in marshaling the higher faculties in people to overcome their common enemy, the barbarian without and within.  Both had learned from experience the tremendous destructive potential of the barbarian, who's selfishness, lack of self-control, and professed aggressive means could destroy society.
 
But over the next hundred years, the philosophical alliance soured. The Greeks started to ridicule the Jewish religion and put idols in the Temple.  The Hashmoniam family of Jewish Priests raised an army, defeated the Greek army, and pushed them out of Israel.  The holiday of Chanukah commemorates this victory, and how they cleaned the Temple of idol worship, and lit the holy menorah (a candelabra with oil) in the Temple that had been left unlit since the Greeks had taken over the Temple.
 
What had gone wrong?  It turned out there were important philosophical differences between the Jews and Greeks, that can be summarized as follows:
 
The Jews start with the axiom that there is an all powerful God Who revealed His will at Mt. Sinai, and the Bible is a record of that revelation. Judaism is therefore God centered, and claims that Man overcomes his barbarian tendencies through a fear and love of God and by following His commandments. This includes those commandments that don't seem to make sense to us, because they are assumed to spring from a Higher Wisdom.
 
The Greeks, on the other hand, claim they start with no axioms, and begin with the mind of Man and a clean slate, and say 'Let's see what is true through examination'.  They appreciated the ethical imperatives of the Bible, but they were highly skeptical of a revelation of God at Sinai, because it couldn't be proved.  They took from Judaism what they felt made sense, and threw the rest out as possible superstition.   The Greeks focused on Man rather than God, and on reason rather than belief.  The Greeks were also skeptical of the whole concept of a spiritual world that is the domain of holiness and God, but rather focused on the physical world because they claim we must use our physical senses to gather information that we then analyze with reason to see what is true and false.  They maintained that belief in a spiritual world must take a back seat until it is proven.
 
We'll give two examples that exemplifies the rift between the Jews and Greeks.  First, the Bible mentions:  "Bid them that they make throughout their generations fringes in the corners of their garments." (Numbers 5:38)  This refers to the strings attached to the four corners of the shawls that Jews pray in.  The Greeks applied the 'light of reason' to this idea, and rejected it  - as well as most of the religious rituals mentioned in the Bible - as making no sense.
 
Second, the Greeks regarded homosexuality as the 'highest form of love', and most adult males - including the great philosophers - had boy lovers.  The Jews said that the Bible clearly prohibits homosexuality as an 'abomination', and therefore was wrong for people to do.
 
In short, the Jews determined what was right and wrong by looking in the Bible.  The Greeks determined right and wrong through reason.  Therefore, they came to different conclusions in many areas. In the end, the Jews felt the Greek attitude was in many ways profane and unholy, and the Greeks ridiculed the Jewish 'superstitions'. 
 
Even though the Hashmonains threw the Greeks out of Israel, this philosophical confrontation continued to rage within Israel.  History showed that the Greek philosophical attack weakened the Jewish people, and is given as one of the major reasons that the second Temple fell to the Romans 200 years later.
 
It was felt all along that if the philosophical differences between Jews and Greeks could be overcome, then they could put up a more powerful front against the Barbarian philosophy.  But, such a rapprochement did not come about, and the rift remained wide, giving a wide berth to the power of the Barbarians.
 
CHAPTER 3 - HISTORY UNTIL TODAY
 
After the Greeks had shone their light on the world, the world stage was set for the interplay of the three major philosophies. Barbarism had existed from the dawn of man, from the time people robbed, killed, raped, or injured others when they felt like doing it.  Monotheistic Religion had as its main emissaries the Jews and their Bible, who promulgated the concept that there was one God who commands us to be good and to be more mindful of the spiritual aspect of life.  And the Greeks let flower the concept we call Scientific, that man with his mind can achieve understanding of himself and the world through reason and careful examination.  As we have shown, the three philosophies looked at the world very differently, and they competed for the mind of Man. A major element of  history is the story of this competition. 
 
Up until today, many amalgams of the three philosophies have been formed, trying to combine what was seen as strengths of each.  Very often the intertwining of ideas is subtle, and it is difficult to tweeze apart which elements of a philosophy or culture came from each of the three major philosophies.  We'll briefly mention a few major amalgams.
 
Rome
 
The rise of Rome occurred soon after the decline of Greece, and built much of its cultural ideas on an admiration of Greek philosophy, art, and politics.  But Rome combined this with a desire for power and domination that makes it an amalgam of Science and Barbarism.  In fact it used its Greek rationality to help it achieve and maintain its Barbaric goal of world power.  The Romans were excellent builders and administrators, abilities that come from the Greek reliance on reason.  But its lack of shame and unabashed pursuit of control and pleasure come from the Barbarian philosophical viewpoint.  Its rationality that springs from the Greek side of its culture helped it maintain a 'Pax Romana' (Roman Peace) for 200 years, during which it controlled most of the known world.  But the Barbaric side of its culture contributed to its tendency for hedonism and cruelty, and led to a moral decay that eventually made the Roman Empire disintegrate. 
 
Christianity
 
Christianity was born when Rome was at its pinnacle of power, and flourished as Rome died its slow death. Christianity, obviously, springs mainly from the Religious philosophical tradition of the Jews. The founders of Christianity were Jewish, and regarded Monotheism as the bedrock of their new religion.  With regard to Barbarism of dissolute Rome, they responded very negatively, and many of Christianity's early adherents were drawn to Christianity because of their revulsion to the Barbaric side of Roman culture.  To the extent that Rome was hedonistic, Christianity's asceticism was the opposite.  Though Christianity always places faith above reason, it borrowed some aspects of Greek philosophy.  Its tendency towards theology, the philosophy of religion, is borrowed from the Greek love of examination.  And its goal of proselytizing and spreading the 'word' comes from the Greek belief that Man can become enlightened when he is taught the correct way of looking at the world.  Therefore, Christianity is an amalgam of mostly the Religious perspective with certain aspects of the Greek perspective.  Added to that was a strong anti-Barbarism and anti-hedonism that gave their religion, at least initially, a decidedly 'other worldly' tone.
 
Islam
 
In the 6th century the other major Monotheistic religion, Islam, was born in the Middle East.  Mohammed, outraged by the unholy attitudes among Arabs, preached the Religious injunction that people should dedicate themselves to fulfilling God's will and strive towards holiness.  He added, however, that anger and violence were positive means of spreading the holy word.  In a sense, Mohammed took the attribute of force that is often associated with Barbarism, and raised it to the level of holiness when used to eliminate the 'infidel' and spread the knowledge and practice of God.  This new twist gave the Moslems enormous power, and within a century they had conquered and converted - under the threat of the sword and 'Jihad' (religious war) - almost the entire Middle East and Northern Africa.
 
Dark and Middle Ages
 
As the Roman Empire aged, the Roman blend of Science and Barbarism was tending toward greater percentages of Barbarism.  As if in reaction to the increase in Roman debauchery and cruelty, Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity in 315 and declared Christianity as the official religion of Rome.  But the Roman Empire also had to contend with real Barbarians at the gates, made up of Huns, Visigoths, Celts, and Vandals, among others, who constantly attacked the Roman legions.  In the 6th century, the Roman Empire fell to these Barbarian hordes, who destroyed and pillaged everything in their path.  The centuries that followed are known as the Dark Ages, in which almost all people were illiterate, the average life span was about 20 years, and there was almost no civilization as we know it.  Life was mean and short, and this gives an inkling to what the world is like when the Barbarians are in control. Partly because many people felt the need for more than Barbarism, the Christian Church, based in Rome, became stronger, and sent out its missionaries to spread the 'word' of Religion to the masses.  Starting around the year 1000, there were a series of great religious wars, called the Crusades, where Christian Europe sent armies to battle the Moslems in the Middle East. Throughout this period the mind of Western man was an amalgam of Religion and Barbarism.
 
In the 13th century the Far East received a hefty dose of Barbarism, when Ghenghiz Khan took a small Mongolian tribe and built it into an empire that included China, Russia, Northern India, the Middle East, and Europe as far as Hungary. He did it by motivating his warriors with the clearly enunciated Barbarian philosophy: "The greatest joy a man can know is to kill his enemies, take away their possessions, clasp their women in his arms, and see those women bedewed with tears."  His grandson, Kubla Khan, started a dynasty that ruled China for over 300 years.
 
The Renaissance
 
Italy in the 14th century became a center of trade that enabled it to accumulate enough wealth to support a leisure class.  These nobles and the literati they funded had time to rediscover and think about the Greek classics and the 'Scientific' philosophy that had lain dormant for many centuries.  The refocusing of attention towards the Greek consideration of the nobility of Man and the power of Man's mind produced a burst of light similar to that engendered by the Greeks themselves 1600 years before. The philosophy and art that was reborn in the Italian Renaissance subsequently spread to the rest of Europe and England in the next few centuries.
 
The Greek emphasis on reason and examination became the germ of what we today call the Scientific Method, where all assumptions are thrown aside in the pursuit of what is verifiably true through objective experimentation.  Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626), during the English Renaissance, wrote forcefully that man mustn't let old assumptions stand in his way, but must examine reality carefully to determine what is true:
 
"Knowledge is power." (Sacred Meditations)
 
"If a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts; but if he will be content to begin with doubts he shall end in certainties." (The Advancement of Learning)  
 
"The best method of "searching into and discovering truth... derives axioms from the senses and particulars, rising by a gradual and unbroken ascent, so that it arrives at the most general axioms last of all.  This is the true way, but as yet untried." (Novuum Organuum)
 
The Enlightenment
 
Utilizing the tool of reason advocated by the Greek 'Scientific' perspective yielded an enormous amount to Man's knowledge, as we enter the period called the Enlightenment, about 1600 to 1800.  Galileo (1564-1642), who perfected the telescope and made discoveries about the planets, said:
 
"Facts which at first seem improbable will, even on scant explanation, drop the cloak which has hidden them and stand forth in naked and simple beauty".
 
"The universe... is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures."
 
Chemical elements were discovered in the laboratory, the microscope revealed secrets about biology, and inventions such as the steam engine gave rise to the industrial revolution which greatly increased people's standard of living.
 
This scrutiny included, not only nature, but all aspects of man's life. Adam Smith (1723-1790) examined man's economic life to propose how the free market system can work to increase man's wealth.  John Locke (1632-1704) proposed that government is best when it gives its people liberty, an idea that heavily influenced the founding fathers of the grand social experiment called the United States.  And art and music thrived with the reawakened feeling of man's abilities and potential. 
 
An enormous scientific breakthrough occurred when Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) invented calculus and discovered the laws of gravity that explained how a common set of mathematical laws govern the movement of heavenly bodies and objects on Earth.  Alexander Pope (1688-1744) wrote:
 
"Nature, and Nature's laws lay hid in night:
 
God said, Let Newton be!, and all was light". 
 
Religion vs. Science
 
The Enlightenment was one of the only periods in Man's history that saw a true partnership between Religion and Science.  The great Religions, over the millennia, had garnered considerable respect as a civilizing influence over the Barbarian tendency in Man, and in Europe, for example, the Catholic and Protestant Churches had a great deal of moral and political power.  In addition, Science's great advances during this period, in explaining the physical phenomena in the world and providing tools that increase Man's wealth and power, gave Science an enormous amount of respect and even awe. 
 
For most people, this mutual respect for Religion and Science were not contradictory.  On the contrary, many saw the grand designs of the universe as evidence of brilliant designs of the Creator, from the 'music of the heavenly spheres' in their geometric dances explained by Newton, to the intricate workings of the human body.  In fact, the great majority of Enlightenment thinkers were religious men, finding little conflict between faith and reason.  This partnership between Religion and Science gave considerable hope to Mankind that the destructive Barbarian could be kept at bay.
 
But alas, a cloud appeared on the horizon, that grew larger and darker as time progressed.  Inevitably, there were thinkers that legitimately focused their spotlight of objective reason and experimentation on the subject of Religion itself.  It was, as Yogi Berra said, 'Deja Vu all over again', creating the seeds of conflict similar to that experienced between the Jews and Greeks 1900 years earlier.  Scientific men looked at Religion and asked:
 
   What is the spiritual world that Religion talks so much about?
 
   What is the source of the moral commandments that tells man to be good?
 
   Where is the soul?
 
   What is God?
 
Some in the Church tried to meet the problem head on, and stifle reason and restrict Science.  For example, Galileo was put on trial for maintaining that the Earth is not the center of the solar system (seemingly implied by a strict literal reading of the Bible), and after recanting under threat of death, lived under house arrest for most of the remainder of his life.  Martin Luther (1483-1546) had voiced the fear of the Church years earlier: 
 
"Reason is the greatest enemy that faith has; it never comes to the aid of spiritual things, but - more frequently than not - struggles against the divine Word, treating with contempt all that emanates from God."
 
Hume and  Kant
 
The Church's rearguard action against Science was doomed to eventual failure, because of the tremendous successes and resulting respect that Science was achieving.  And just as they feared, some thinkers began to ridicule religion as being 'unscientific'. These thinkers claimed that skepticism about Religion was justified because they felt that Science had looked for the spiritual world, the soul, and God, and had come up empty handed.  Science, they said, could find no evidence for the existence of these principles that Religion is founded on.  The Scientific Method, they said, demands that assumptions be thrown aside and that we believe only what can be shown with repeated experimentation, and that we should examine Religion with this same discerning eye.
 
An example of this anti-religious position was taken by the English philosopher David Hume (1711-1776). He called religion 'superstition', and advocated that philosophers should go about "opposing one species of superstition to another, set them a-quarreling; while we ourselves, during their fury and contention, happily make our escape into the calm, though obscure, regions of philosophy." (The Natural History of Religion).  He concluded that, "Generally speaking, the errors in religion are dangerous" (A treatise of Human Nature).
 
Hume threw down the gauntlet, challenging Religion to prove itself.  He agreed that people sometimes improve their moral behavior when they believe in the 'fairy tales' of Religion, but that an intelligent man should be able to get along without that crutch.
 
The German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) wrote that when he read Hume's attack on Religion, he saw red, and that it took him 11 years to come up with an answer to those attacks.  Kant not only was a very religious Lutheran, but he saw that the moral compass that religion provides is essential for the maintenance of civilization.  Kant proposed that there are two worlds, the physical and the 'metaphysical', the latter being the intangible domain of the soul and God.  He said that this metaphysical realm is governed by a set of laws just as scientific as the Newtonian laws that govern the physical world.  One of the main laws, that determined what was right and wrong, he called the 'categorical imperative':
 
"There is only a single categorical imperative and it is this: Act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law. (The Metaphysic of Morals)
 
In short, if you want to know if it's 'good' to double park during the rush hour, imagine that it was a universal law that everyone must double park during the rush hour.  If the universal law results in good, then it's OK for you to do it. If not, the action is wrong.
 
"Two things fill the mind with ever-increasing wonder and awe...:the starry heavens above me, and the moral law within me."  (Critique of Practical Reason)
 
The 19th Century
 
Though Kant's attempt to defend Religion was valiant, the 19th century saw a gradual erosion of Religion's power, especially among the 'enlightened', those who prided themselves on being Scientific.  Science waxed, and Religion waned.  Science was producing such a cornucopia of discoveries and technology, that there was a prevalent belief that Utopia was just around the corner, led by the advancements of Science and the enlightened mind of Man.  Religion was seen by many as the fount of superstition that would actually impede man's march towards Utopia. 
 
A telling image is described in R.R. Palmer's marvelous book 'Twelve Who Ruled', about Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety that ruled France after the French Revolution.  When Robespierre felt that his Reign of Terror had eliminated the retrograde forces holding back progress, he staged a parade in Paris where he built a mountain called the 'Mountain of Reason', and everyone dressed in Greek costumes as they marched towards this symbol of man's glorious ability for Rationality that would usher in the golden age.  Robespierre must have miscalculated, because within a few months the Reign of Terror continued with a vengeance, throwing France into chaos, Robespierre himself dying on the guillotine.  The 'Greek' Rationalists felt that they could lead Man towards the light without the help of Religion, but the Barbarians resurfaced and destroyed their plans.
 
Later in the century, Karl Marx  (1818-1883) proposed a similar image of the future, rejecting Religion as the 'opiate of the masses', and maintaining that Religion was an anachronism that just befuddled the enlightened mind with superstition and must be obliterated entirely.  His 'Scientific Materialism' claimed that Man's rationality, in seeing the class struggle clearly, would inevitably inspire Man to eliminate the 'bad Capitalistic classes', that would result  in the ideal future brought about by Science alone. 
 
As the 19th century progressed, the belief grew steadily that science by itself had the power to redeem Man from whatever darkness shackled him.  At least among the intellectuals, religion was seen more and more as 'unscientific' baggage from the past that was best jettisoned in the march towards Man's Utopian future. The Reform movement in Judaism proclaimed that only those parts of their religion that 'made sense' after rational scrutiny would remain.  And Sigmund Freud reported on how he was using scientific rationality to explore the inner workings of Man's mind itself. It was felt that Science and reason would soon fill Man's mind with clarity, light, and happiness.
 
Darwin and Nietzsche
 
But then one of the most bizarre events in the history of philosophy occurred.  In 1859 Charles Darwin published a startling book called 'On the Origin of the Species'.  Darwin had been a naturalist on board the H.M.S. Beagle, a British boat that was exploring the Galapagos Islands off the western coast of South America.  Based on the enormous varieties of plants and animals he saw there, Darwin formulated his theory of evolution.  He maintained that animal life on earth had progressed from the lowliest forms through a kind of war called 'natural selection', 'the struggle for existence', and 'the survival of the fittest'. 
 
"Each organic being is striving to increase in a geometric ratio... [it] has to struggle for life and to suffer great destruction... The vigorous, the healthy, and the happy survive and multiply...From the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows."
 
This theory affected the intellectual battle between Religion, Science, and Barbarism in two very important ways.  First, it maintained that Man evolved from monkeys and other lower forms of life, in seeming direct contradiction to the Biblical account that God created man directly. 
 
But even more important, though Darwin himself never said this, for many it confirmed the Barbarian's view of the world, and gave scientific justification for the Barbarian's actions.  These people interpreted Darwin's theory as implying that the strong Barbarian man was the vehicle of Man's progress, eliminating through his violence the weak and the infirm, those not 'fit' to survive.  The Barbarian was seen as 'good', and the wars and violence the Barbarian perpetrated was seen as similar to the wars of the jungle that eventually produced higher forms of life. The Barbarian was suddenly transformed from the destructive and evil menace to society that Religion had painted him as, into the vanguard of progress, pruning away the undesirable and weak elements of society that retard progress.  For many, this turning of the Barbarian into a 'hero' was verified by Science.
 
At the forefront of this new philosophical position was the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900).  He maintained that Darwin's theories could liberate man from the shackles of conscience and religion and go 'beyond good and evil'.  He said that religion - both Christianity and its Jewish roots - reflected a debased servile mentality that was a plot by the weak to oppress the strong. 
 
"I call Christianity the one great curse, the one enormous and innermost perversion... I call it the one immortal blemish of mankind." (The Antichrist)
 
He proclaimed that 'God is dead', and in His place we should pay respect to the 'Superman', the glorious victor of the jungle who is motivated by the 'will to power'. 
 
In 'The Genealogy of Morals', he says "The sick are the greatest danger for the healthy; it is not from the strongest that harm comes to the strong, but from the weakest."  Compassion for the sick and guilt about eliminating them is the real 'evil' that holds back Man's progress.  Instead he glorified the 'master races', and 'at the core of all these aristocratic races the beast of prey is not to be mistaken, the magnificent blond beast, avidly rampant for spoil and victory."
 
The Twentieth Century
 
As we enter the 20th century, we see the philosophical terrain has been completely transformed compared to the Enlightenment just 150 years earlier. No longer does Science and Religion have a partnership to keep the Barbarian at bay.  Instead, Science had become extremely skeptical of Religion's belief in God and the soul, deeming it unproven and unscientific hearsay.  The advances of Science had made it increasingly confident that Reason, without Religion, was the path to the golden age of peace and plenty.  This would prove to be a mere chimera, partly because the Barbarian was on the warpath, greatly emboldened by the likes of Nietzsche who claimed that Science verified that the Barbarian was correct, good, and history's hero.  Being pummeled by Science and the Barbarian, Religion was thoroughly defensive and on the ropes.
 
Into this melee stepped the American Philosopher William James (1842-1910), preaching what he called 'pragmatism'  He claimed that we should be religious, even though it's not scientific, because it makes our lives better.
 
"We can act as if there were a God; ...consider Nature as if she were full of special designs; lay plans as if we were to be immortal; and we find then that these words do make a genuine difference in our moral life. (The Varieties of Religious Experience).
 
This doesn't make us any less scientific because "the evidence for God lies primarily in inner personal experiences."
 
By and large, as the 20th century progressed,  James' belief in the 'pragmatism' of Religion did little to sway the Scientist, who felt more powerful on his own as his tools discovered more about nature and led to more technology.  In fact, some claimed that the essential challenge to Man in life is to live without a crutch of believing in an unproven God, and to develop within this cosmic vacuum one's own morality.  Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1980), one of the proponents of this philosophy of Existentialism, put it this way:
 
"Man can will nothing unless he has first understood that he must count on no one but himself; that he is alone, abandoned on earth in the midst of his infinite responsibilities, without help, with no other aim than the one he sets himself, with no other destiny than the one he forges for himself on this earth." (Being and Nothingness)
 
Without Religion, Sartre felt a cosmic emptiness: "Everything is gratuitous, this garden, this city, and myself.  When you suddenly realize it, it makes you feel sick and everything begins to drift... that's nausea." (La Nausee 1938)
 
With Religion attacked from all sides, and the Scientist asserting that morality is relative, it was inevitable for the Barbarian - who felt that Science was on his side - to take charge.  Armed with the new technology of war developed by the Scientist, in just a few years Adolf Hitler killed 25 million people and Joseph Stalin killed 50 million people.  The irony is that they both did it in the name of 'progress'.  Hitler felt empowered by the Nietzschean belief in the primacy of the 'master race'.  And Stalin did it in the name of Marx's 'scientific materialism'. 
 
As Hitler wrote in Mein Kampf: "It is true we Germans are barbarians, that is an honored title to us.  I free humanity from the shackles of the soul; from the degrading suffering caused by the false vision called conscience and ethics."
 
Today
 
Where do we stand today in the struggle between the three major philosophical archetypes?  After Hitler and Stalin, the world was collectively stunned by the enormous destructive power of the technologically armed Barbarian, especially a Barbarian confident that he is doing 'good'.  The thought of such a Barbarian using nuclear armaments to 'cleanse' the world of his enemies has made us all shudder. 
 
The Scientist is puzzled why increased knowledge and technology has not brought about his Utopia, and is unhappy that many of the tools he created has been used for destructive purposes by the Barbarian.  But he sees little alternative than to hope that further enlightenment and plenty will bring it about. 
 
The Barbarian is no longer claiming that killing millions of people will bring about progress, but he is alive and hearty in the social arena, advocating the benefits of hedonism, materialism, selfishness, drugs, and general debauchery. The birth control pill (another gift from science) and the ensuing sexual revolution has helped this along.
 
Those who are Religious claim that the last 100 years shows what can happen to a world that derides religion, but still feels ignored by the skeptical Scientist.  He is also watchful that Barbarian attitudes don't infect him with subtle forms of hedonism, materialism, selfishness, intolerance, and fanaticism.
 
In short, there's a stalemate.  Each philosophy feels a mixture of confidence and doubt.  In the next chapter we will explore a new theory in Science that can possibly break this stalemate.
 
CHAPTER 4 – SUPERSTRINGS
 
The advances of Science in the 20th century have been phenomenal.  In physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, engineering, medicine, and computers - just to name some of the areas - the advances in basic understanding and new technological tools have been astounding. 
 
For example, physicists have built enormous 'atom smashers' that use electromagnets to speed up elementary particles almost to the speed of light and have them collide with each other.  Using computer analysis of the debris, theoretical physicists have come up with elaborate theories explaining the building blocks of matter.
 
In biology, scientists have been able to explain in great detail the genetic material from which all living things spin themselves into beings.  In addition, they have been able to perform 'genetic engineering' to transplant genes of different organisms into each other so that, for example, bacteria can produce human insulin.
 
From skyscrapers to microcomputers to heart transplants to jets, the fruits of science surround us and contribute to our lives significantly. 
 
But Science has not solved all the problems that it has investigated, and there are many areas that remain to be conquered and need to be understood with greater clarity.  One of the great hallmarks of Science is that it relishes exploring the unknown, and so often  investigating the shadowy areas has resulted in the greatest light of new understanding.  We will mention two of these areas.
 
Unified Field Theory
 
The great breakthroughs in physics have come about when scientists devise mathematical formulas that explain and predict physical reality.  The language of physics is mathematics, and when scientists can plug in concrete values into the X's and Y's and other symbols of mathematical formulas and see that it all adds up correctly, physicists say their formulas form an accurate model of reality. 
 
We described how Sir Isaac Newton used the differential calculus that he invented to explain gravity, using the same formulas to describe apples falling to the earth and the movement of the heavenly spheres.  In the 19th century James Clark Maxwell crafted formulas that describe electricity and magnetism, and showed how they are really one force called 'electromagnetism'. 
 
At the start of the 20th century Albert Einstein shocked the world of physics by coming up with a set of formulas called the Theory of Relativity that explained gravity and the dance of the stars and planets far better than Newton's formulas.  To give a taste of his revolutionary ideas, Einstein said that time and space form a four dimensional space time continuum, and that matter inside this 'space-time' causes it to 'bend', and this bending is what we perceive as gravity.  It's hard to visualize Einstein's model of the universe, but his formulas were so much more accurate than Newton's that they have been since been established as 'laws', supplanting Newton's formulas.
 
By the 1920's, physics had established that there are four forces in the universe: gravity, electromagnetism, and two forces that operate within the atom called the strong force and the weak force.  The strong force holds the nucleus of the atom together, and the weak force is involved with certain types of radioactive decay.  Using mathematical formulas, physics could show with great accuracy how each of these forces worked.  Mathematicians and physicists working together were able to come us with one set of formulas that described the three forces that worked in the small spaces of the atom: electromagnetism, and the strong and weak forces.
 
But for some inexplicable reason, no one was able to bring the force of gravity into this set of formulas, and it remained outside, using the Einstein formulas of Relativity.  The holy grail of physics since that time has been to come up with a 'unified field theory', that would describe all four forces of the universe with one set of formulas.  This is the project that Albert Einstein worked on for the last 30 years of his life, but to no avail.  One of the great mysteries of modern physics has been why the mathematics that describes gravity and the large scales of the universe is different than the formulas that describe the forces at the atomic level. 
 
Why is it so important to have one set of formulas, rather than two, that describe all four forces in the universe?  The answer is that physicists want to model 'reality', and it is assumed that there is one reality, not two.  Therefore, having two separate sets of formulas indicates that the underlying reality has not yet been understood mathematically, and that it should be describable with one set of formulas that includes both gravity on the large scale and electromagnetism (and the strong and weak force) on the small scale.
 
There is another related question that modern physics has not been able to answer.  Physics has formulas that describes time, space, and the hundreds of sub-atomic particles that matter consists of.  But what is time and space and the subatomic particles themselves made up of?  Is there a basic building block, a 'smallest thing that can exist', that the universe of time, space, and matter is built from?  The greatest minds of modern physics have tried to tackle this question and have come up empty handed.
 
The Mind
 
Another significant area that science does not yet understand well is the mind.  Perhaps this is because the mind is not 'physical' enough to enable science to probe and examine it the way it has plumbed the intricacies of physics and chemistry.  We all think and are conscious, but science has only a dim grasp of how thinking and consciousness works. It has found areas of the brain related in some way to memory and various mental functioning, but how the firing of the synapses of billions of nerve cells adds up to consciousness is not  yet understood.
 
This lack of understanding applies to many aspects of the mind.  Science hasn't really explained how or why we sleep or dream, or the exact nature of emotions or feelings such as love, hate, anger, or happiness.  Science has not yet written the mathematical equation that explains sensation, pleasure, and pain.  We obviously know that a flame on our finger hurts, but we don't really understand what it means for us to be conscious of that pain. The multiple kinds of relationships we form that spring from our needs, feelings, and dispositions are more the subject matter of soap operas and religious sermons than scientific textbooks.  Why people have certain tastes in other people or specific kinds of music is not well understood scientifically.
 
Throughout the day we are involved with thoughts and feelings, and it is a great challenge to science to determine where in the brain the thoughts and feelings reside, and how they are created and change.  Descartes made his famous pronouncement, "I think therefore I am", but he didn't explain what thinking is or how it works.  Freud published many important theories about the mind, including one that describes an ego, superego, and id that is similar to the three philosophies of Science, Religion, and the Barbarian.  But science has never been able to prove Freud's hypotheses, or point to where - for example - the ego exists.
 
In fact, it is even somewhat a mystery why the mind has remained an almost unfathomable and ever distant frontier, and why the nature of the mind and consciousness seems almost as inscrutable today as it did thousands of years ago.  What are the mechanisms of consciousness?  Where do thoughts and feelings reside and how do they work?  Science does not yet have the answers to these questions.
 
We will now describe a recent breakthrough in theoretical physics that may touch on several issues we've discussed so far.
 
Superstrings
 
In 1979 two physicists met while working at the giant atom smasher called CERN in Switzerland.  They were John Schwartz from the California Institute of Technology and Michael Green from Queen Mary College at the University of London.  Both had been working independently on the grand problem of theoretical physics, a unified field theory that would put gravity and electromagnetism under the rubric of a single mathematical model. 
 
They found that their ideas, methods, and goals were somewhat similar so they agreed to meet every summer to work together on the problem.  They made progress each year, and in the summer of 1984, while working together at the Center for Physics in Aspen, Colorado, they made a tremendous breakthrough.  They devised one set of mathematical formulas that explained all four forces in the universe, including gravity and electromagnetism.  They had found the holy grail of modern physics, that had eluded Albert Einstein and countless other brilliant physicists and mathematicians. 
 
They announced their findings to their colleagues, and in just a few weeks the news had spread like wildfire to the worldwide scientific community.  Journals quickly hailed the discovery as one of the greatest discoveries in science, and called it the 'Theory of Everything' because it explained so much.  The journal Science said it was "no less profound than the transition from real numbers to complex numbers in mathematics."
 
What was this new theory?  Schwartz and Green found that they could make all their mathematical formulas work when they posited the existence of an extremely small entity from which all matter, space, and time was constructed.  This elemental building block they called a 'superstring'.  It is a tiny vibrating string that twists and combines with other superstrings.  They were able to explain the behavior of all known forces and subatomic particles by describing how these superstrings combine and vibrate. 
In addition, they were only able to achieve their breakthrough and make all their formulas work when they posited that this superstring exists in 10 dimensions.  With these tiny vibrating strings of 10 dimensions, Schwartz and Green were able to explain mathematically all known phenomena, both on the very large and very small scale.  It was hailed as a mathematical miracle.
 
Schwartz and Green also knew how small the superstring is, because it was only with one size that all the equations worked out.  The superstring is 10-33 centimeters long.  To picture how small that is, a superstring is to an atom as a piece of dust is to the entire solar system.  Put another way, if we reduced ourselves to the size of an atom, we would have to reduce ourselves an equivalent amount to get to the size of a superstring.
 
For decades, physicists had seen the hundreds of kinds of subatomic particles that could be produced by smashing particles together in the cyclotrons and other atom smashers.  These particles had been given exotic names such as mu-mesons, neutrinos, fermions, hyperons, and so on.  Schwartz and Green were able to use superstring theory to explain how these particles are created and change in terms of the different ways that superstrings combine and vibrate.  In a way that is hard for us to visualize, they also said that space and time themselves are made up of superstrings.  In other words, everything - matter, space, time, and energy - is made up of only superstrings.
 
Ten Dimensions
 
When the excitement and congratulations quieted down back in 1984, the physicists and others asked themselves a question about the nature of the 10 dimensions that allowed the mathematics of superstring theory to work out.  It is easy enough in mathematics to posit a world with ten dimensions.  But what, they asked, does this mean in terms of the real world?  Einstein had shown that our physical world consists of a four dimensional space time continuum, consisting of height, width, depth, and time. Superstring theory did not dispute this.  According to superstring theory, therefore, our world has four physical dimensions and 6 non-physical dimensions.  Superstring theory posits that these 6 non-physical dimensions exist because only with 10 dimensions in total do the mathematical formulas work out.  But what does it mean for there to be 6 non-physical dimensions in addition to the 4 physical ones we are familiar with?  The answer was a resounding: 'We don't know'.  But the mathematics tells us the 6 non-physical dimensions are there.
 
By definition we can't measure and detect these 6 non-physical dimensions in the laboratory because they are not physical, and the scientific experiments of physics, at least up until now, is able only to measure the physical world.  But what are these 6 non-physical dimensions that the mathematics of superstring theory says exist?   This question has remained a puzzle.  It is still very much open to speculation and investigation. 
 
But puzzling though it may be, we are left with the fact that the breakthrough in physics that was sought after for at least half a century, that explains all forces and all phenomena with one set of mathematical formulas, posits that everything is composed of tiny superstrings that vibrate in 10 dimensions, with 6 of the dimensions being not physical.
 
New Thinking
 
At this point, it may be useful for the scientists among us to be ready for some creative thinking.  This may be necessitated by the nature of the puzzle we are confronted with.  Namely, that superstring theory - the 'mathematical miracle' called the 'theory of everything' - posits that there are 6 non-physical dimensions, certainly an unconventional idea. Since by definition we won't find these 6 dimensions in the laboratory or see them under a microscope - because they are not physical - perhaps we should be ready for some fresh thinking.
 
For example, there is a book that has been claimed by many to deal with aspects of a non-physical world, and it is called the Bible.  We can look in the Bible to see if there is anything that hints at some of the conclusions of superstring theory, such as the existence of 6 non-physical dimensions.  To our amazement, we can find some interesting topics, that we will now discuss.
 
The Talis
 
When a religious Jew prays, he covers his shoulders with a prayer shawl called a 'talis'.  This practice is rooted in a commandment in the Bible:
 
"Bid them that they make throughout their generations fringes in the corners of their garments, and that they put with the fringes of each corner a thread of blue.  And it shall be unto you for a fringe, and you may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the Lord, and do them, and that you go not about after your own heart and your own eyes, after which you use to go astray, that you may remember and do all my commandments and be holy unto your God." (Numbers 5:38)
 
There are two parts of the talis.  First there is the four corner garment itself.  The Talmud makes it clear that it must have exactly four corners, and when a person dons the talis, he says a blessing that refers to the four corners of the world and touches the four corners of the talis.
 
The second part of the talis are the fringes that are attached to each of its four corners. What do the fringes look like?  The Talmud says 4 strings are threaded through a hole in each corner of the talis, and then doubled over to make 8 strings.  Two of the 8 strings are blue to remind us of heaven and the commandments the Almighty wishes us to do.  And this leaves 6 white strings.
 
For thousands of years, Jews donned the talis with its attached strings because the Bible told them to, with little concern for its symbolism.  We can now see it as a perfect symbol for the picture of reality presented to us by superstring theory.  The four corned talis, that the Talmud says represents the 4 corners of the world, represents the 4 physical dimensions of the world, physical reality.
 
And what is coming out of the corners of the talis?  Strings!  Two of them are blue to remind us of the Almighty, and that leaves 6 strings that represent our spiritual responsibilities.  These 6 strings represent the 6 non-physical dimensions of superstring theory.  This might have something to do with what Religion refers to as spiritual reality.  If one would attempt to create a physical model of superstring theory to show in front of a classroom, it would be hard to come up with a better model than a talis described by the Bible over 3000 years ago.  The four cornered garment represents the 4 physical dimensions, and the 6 flowing white strings coming out of each corner represents the 6 non-physical dimensions.
 
The Temple
 
After the Jews escaped from Egyptian bondage, they lived in the Sinai wilderness for 40 years.  One of the many commandments that God gave them was to build a movable Temple in which to worship God, both in Sinai and afterwards when they would enter the land of Israel.  The Book of Exodus, the second book of the Bible, describes three times in great detail how this Temple should be constructed.  Five hundred years later King Solomon built a much larger Temple in Jerusalem that had the same basic design. 
 
One of the principles behind the design of the Temple was that it had several levels of holiness, and as one got closer to the center of the Temple, the level of holiness increased.  In the center of the Temple, in the 'inner sanctum', was a mini building called the 'haichel'.  At the very center of the haichel was the 'holy of holies', a room that contained the holy ark containing the tablets of the law that Moses had taken down from Mount Sinai.  This room was entered only by the high priest on the holiest day of the year. 
 
The other part of the haichel was a room just outside the holy of holies, and just slightly less in holiness.  This room contained three objects.  At the center was a small golden altar where incense was burned.  We will focus our discussion on the other two objects in this room.
 
To the left of the altar was a rectangular table on which was placed twelve loaves of bread every Friday.  The Talmud describes how one of the miracles of the Temple was that these loaves stayed fresh all week long. In fact, the priests, before they would eat the bread after it was lying on the table all week,  would lift the table up and show it to the watching crowds as evidence that God grants us plenty and protection in this world.  The table represents God's blessing in the physical world.
 
To the right of the altar was a golden candelabra called the 'menorah'.  The menorah consisted of a central vertical shaft, out of which curved six arms.  At the end of each arm was a cup that was filled with oil and kept eternally lit.  The holiday of Chanukah commemorates the kindling of the lights of this menorah after it was snuffed out by the Greeks. The Talmud says that when God described to Moses how to build the menorah, he felt it was so other worldly that he had to be taken to Heaven to see how it should be made. 
 
If we examine the table and the menorah, we see that they represent the same two components as in the talis.  The table is a four cornered rectangle, just like the cloth of the talis, and it too represents the physical world and its four dimensions.  The menorah, on the other hand, with its 6 curving arms culminating in a flame represents the non-physical spiritual world.  Its 6 arms represent the 6 non-physical dimensions, similar to the 6 white strings that emanate from the corners of the talis.
 
Therefore we see that two of the central symbols of the Bible - the talis and the table and menorah in the Temple, both represent a division of the world into a 4 cornered object representing the physical world, and a six string-like component representing the non physical world.  This perfectly matches the distinction of the world in superstring theory, dividing the world into 4 physical dimensions and 6 non-physical dimensions.
 
Three More Symbols
 
The talis and the menorah are clear 'models' delineating the distinction between a rectangle representing the 4 physical dimensions and 6 strings representing the 6 non-physical dimensions, just as proposed by the mathematics of superstring theory.  We know that the 4 physical dimensions are height, width, depth, and time, but as to what the 6 non-physical dimensions are, we can, as yet, only surmise.  In the next chapter we will suggest some possibilities.
 
In addition to the talis and the menorah, however, we can find in the Bible other symbols that make the distinction between a physical world and strings that refer to a spiritual, non-physical aspect of reality, echoing the symbolism of the talis and menorah.  We will mention three such symbols.
 
The Bible says that when a farmer harvests his field, he must not harvest the wheat  from the corners of the field.  He must leave this wheat standing for the poor, who will come and harvest what is left in the corners for themselves.  This is called 'peyah', the Hebrew word for 'corner'.  This in effect tells the farmer that at the very moment he feels the strongest and most satisfied when he harvests his crops, he should remember his spiritual responsibilities to his fellow man.  There is hardly anything more physical than a field that grows the food we eat, and the wheat left standing in the corners, that looks like strings, represents our spiritual responsibilities.  In fact, the field with the string-like wheat coming out of its corners looks very much like a talis.
 
Referring to a second symbol, the Bible says that when a person shaves, he should not shave the corners of his face.  The Hebrew word used here is also 'peyas', or 'corners', and can sometimes be seen as curls growing from above the ears in religious Jews.  Here too the peyas are strings that are to remind us of our obligations to obey the Almighty, in contrast to the face that is our physical visage.
 
In describing the third symbol, the Bible says that after the harvest people should live for a week in a 4 cornered temporary dwelling called a 'succah'.  On the top of the succah is put twigs, and the Talmud emphasizes that looking up at the twigs is to remind us of God and the spiritual aspects of life.  The succah itself is a 4 cornered object that we physically dwell in, and the twigs above are string-like objects that is to remind us of the world's spiritual dimensions.
 
Review
 
We began this chapter by discussing Science's search for a unified field theory, for a mathematical model that encompasses all 4 forces in the Universe, including electromagnetism and gravity.  We then described the breakthrough of superstring theory that says the basic building block of the universe is a tiny vibrating string with 10 dimensions, 4 of them physical and 6 non-physical.  We then mentioned that scientists have been scratching their heads, wondering what it means for there to be 6 non-physical dimensions. 
 
We then showed that it is precisely this distinction between a physical and non-physical aspect of reality that is one of the foundation stones of religion, with religion referring to the non-physical aspects of reality as 'spiritual'.  We described several symbols in the first 5 books of the Bible, that religious people claim was authored by God over 3000 years ago, that embody this distinction between physical and spiritual.  They are:
 
PHYSICAL   
SPIRITUAL
4 cornered garment (talis)
6 white strings coming from each corner
4 cornered table inside haichel          
menorah next to it with 6 arms
harvested field                                  
wheat left standing in its corners for the poor
human face                                       
hair left growing in its corners
4 cornered dwelling after harvest       
twigs on top to remind us of spiritual responsibilities
 
 
In each of these symbols, there is an object, usually with 4 corners, that represents the physical world, and a string-like component, reminiscent of the superstrings themselves, that represents the spiritual aspects of reality.  The 6 white strings flowing from each corner of the talis, and the 6 curving arms of the menorah,  most closely match the 6 non-physical dimensions of superstring theory.
 
We can remind ourselves that starting with David Hume, much of modern philosophy scoffed at religion precisely because it was unable to demonstrate the existence of a spiritual, non-physical world that is one of the axioms of the religious mind.  We have described how Science's skepticism about religion has been one factor in opening the door for the Barbarian's greater influence in the 20th century.
 
And now, out of the blue, a great advance in Science - superstring theory - implies the existence of 6 non-physical dimensions that bears a startling resemblance to the talis and menorah in the Bible.  Certainly scientists, who maintain they have an open mind and have been unable to explain superstring's 6 non-physical dimensions, can take notice. 
 
For hundreds of years scientists have said to religion 'we have no choice but to discount you, because we see no indication of a spiritual reality that religion refers to.'  Now a breakthrough in science hints at an aspect of reality that bears an uncanny similarity to what religion refers to as the spiritual world.
 
We are left, however, with a great mystery.  Science and the Bible both indicate there is an aspect of the world with 6 non-physical dimensions, in addition to the physical dimensions we are more familiar with.  What does this mean?  We will discuss this question in the next chapter.  
 
CHAPTER 5 - THE 6 NON-PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS
 
In this chapter we will be discussing some of the broader implications of Superstring theory with regards to philosophy and our every day lives, and specifically how it might affect the debate between Science, Religion, and Barbarism.  But before we do that, we want to take the opportunity to provide an initial hypothesis about what the 6 non-physical dimensions might be.  We must emphasize that anything we suggest is pure speculation, and is meant to provide possible insights for the investigations of others.  Sometimes when areas of investigation are uncovered it is helpful to hear initial ideas and insights that might stimulate further discussion.  Our hypotheses are of that nature, meant to provide some possible insights for others in their investigation and thinking on this subject.
 
A New Puzzle
 
In the previous chapter, we described how Superstring theory has been hailed by scientists as a mathematical miracle that gathers all scientific phenomena (space, time, matter, electromagnetism, gravity, etc.) under one set of mathematical formulas.  It is the grand unification theory of science that puts on the table one set of formulas that explains ALL of reality. 
 
This breakthrough, however, has come with a wrinkle, because superstring theory proposes that the fundamental building block of the universe is a tiny string that vibrates in 10 dimensions, 6 of these dimensions being non-physical.  A new conundrum facing science is explaining what these 6 non-physical dimensions are, or even what it means for there to be non-physical dimensions.
 
We then went on to demonstrate how some of the major symbols of the 5 Books of Moses - that many maintain were direct revelations from God over 3000 years ago - seem to be symbols that imply a similar division of the world into 4 physical dimensions and 6 non-physical dimensions.  The talis that the Jew wraps around himself while praying and the table and the menorah in the inner sanctum of the holy Temple also have two components: a 4 cornered rectangle that the Talmud says refers to the physical world (the 4 physical dimensions), and a component with 6 white strings or arms that the Bible and Talmud emphasizes represents a spiritual world that is the domain of an eternal, omnipresent, and omniscient God.
 
We therefore find ourselves in the very strange position that science and religion mutually corroborate the proposition that there are 6 - yes count them, 6 - non-physical dimensions.  This is exciting because it points towards a new frontier in man's investigating and understanding of reality.  But this is also a dilemma, because we can feel at a loss how to proceed in investigating the suggestion by both science and religion that there is world beyond the physical - that Kant called the metaphysical - composed of exactly 6 dimensions.  We can ask ourselves, "'What is a non-physical dimension, and what does it mean that there are 6 of them?"
 
What Is A Dimension?
 
Perhaps we can get a glimmering of an insight into the possible 6 non-physical dimensions by understanding what a dimension is.  We can begin investigating that question by looking at the 4 dimensions of the physical world.  As we know, the 4 physical dimensions are height, width, depth, and time.  In geometry, a line has one dimension, a plane has 2 dimensions, and a cube has 3 dimensions.
 
One thing we see is that each extra dimension is not separate from the previous dimensions, but extends and adds to them.  When we take a 2 dimensional circle and add a 3rd dimension, it becomes a sphere, and we have extended it in some way.  And if we now add to the ball the 4th dimension of time, it can move and bounce through time, an extension that enables it to do something it couldn't do before.  Each new dimension extends and is not separate from what exists before.
 
Perhaps this is true for dimensions 5 through 10, the six non-physical dimensions.  Even though these dimensions are non-physical, perhaps they are in some way extensions of the previous dimensions in some way, and not separate from them.  Just as the 4th dimension of time gives a ball the capability for movement, so also dimensions 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 may add new capabilities to physical things. 
 
It's possible that the 6 non-physical dimensions are not somewhere else in never-never land, but are right here, somehow adding new non-physical capabilities to the physical things they are extending.  Though we don't as yet understand what these new capabilities are, perhaps they are non-physical extensions of the physical just as a ball in time is able to do more than a ball without time.
 
Non-Physical Jewelry Box
 
There is another possible source of insight in our investigation of the 6 non-physical dimensions.  We can examine reality looking for previously unexplained phenomena that are ethereal or non-physical, in the hope that they might have something to do with the 6 non-physical dimensions.  If the 6 non-physical dimensions manifest themselves in some way in world that we are familiar with, chances are these manifestations would have resisted scientific investigation and puzzled philosophers through the ages precisely because of their non-physical nature.
 
It's as if we were given a jewelry box and then looked around the house for pieces of jewelry that have gotten lost over the years because we hadn't had a jewelry box to put them into.  The insight that there might be 6 non-physical dimensions is like having an empty jewelry box.  Are there philosophical pieces of jewelry that because of their non-physical nature have puzzled science through the ages, and that have defied categorization and understanding, and belong in our jewelry box with its 6 compartments?
 
Surprisingly, we don't have to look far to find phenomena that meet these criteria of being non-physical and having puzzled science.  We discussed some of these areas in our previous chapter when we mentioned that science has not been able to understand many aspects of the mind.  We mentioned that science and philosophy is as baffled as ever as to the nature of the mind, consciousness, thinking, emotions, and sensation.  These phenomena seem to have defied understanding for thousands of years because of their incorporeal and non-physical nature.  Though the greatest minds throughout the history have devoted considerable effort to understanding the mind, consciousness, thinking, emotions, and sensation, these topics have resisted scientific investigation and understanding.
 
Perhaps we can turn a liability into an asset, and maybe these phenomena have resisted explanation because they are not physical, and belong in our jewelry box of the non-physical dimensions.  While we are at it, we want to add some more non-physical phenomena that we have discussed previously, that have been a source of contention between science and religion for quite a while, namely the soul and spiritual reality. 
 
The soul and spiritual reality certainly fit this description of being 'non-physical and puzzling'.  Religion and many of history's greatest philosophers have maintained they exist, but have not been able to see what or where they are.  Perhaps these are other non-physical phenomena that belong in our jewelry box of 6 non-physical dimensions.
 
So our investigation has turned up some non-physical phenomena that have puzzled people throughout the ages.  Here is a list of them: the mind, consciousness, thinking, emotion, sensation, the soul, and spiritual reality.  Perhaps these have something to do with the 6 non-physical dimensions predicted by superstring theory and hinted at by the 6 white strings of the talis and the arms of the menorah.  But what does this mean, and how can we proceed with an investigation if these 6 dimensions are  not physical?
 
An Hypothesis
 
We want to proceed by offering an hypothesis about the 6 non-physical dimensions.  As we stated at the beginning of this chapter, we want to emphasize that this hypothesis is only meant to stimulate further investigation by others on this topic.
 
If we examine our list of 'non-physical' phenomena, we may notice an interesting property about the items on the list.  Some of the items are more 'physical' than others.  That is, some have more of a connection and involvement with the physical world than others.  For example, sensations and emotions might be said to have more involvement with the physical world than what we usually associate with thinking and the soul.  By this we mean that when we touch something or are angry, we are in a sense more involved with the physical world than when we think of ideas or pray.  This germ of an insight can be expanded into a larger hypothesis about how the six dimensions may differ from each other.
 
We suggest that it is possible that the 6 non-physical dimensions differ from each other in the amount of connection they have to the physical world. This may be analogous to how each of the electron rings in an atom vary in their distance from the atom.  Therefore, perhaps the 6 non-physical dimensions vary in stages from a greater to a lesser connection to the physical world.  If there are 6 such levels, we can draw the following chart:
    
Dimension
Part Physical
Part Non-Physical
1
5/6
1/6
2
4/6
2/6
3
3/6
3/6
4
2/6
4/6
5
1/6
5/6
6
6/6
6/6
 
In other words, a reason there may be 6 dimensions is that they vary in their involvement with the physical, from a higher to a lesser involvement.  To expand our hypothesis  further, we can associate areas from our every day experience  with each of these levels.
 
           
Name
Dimension
Part Physical
Part Non-Phyiscal
Being
1
5/6
1/6
Sensation
2
4/6
2/6
Emotion
3
3/6
3/6
Thought
4
2/6
4/6
Soul
5
1/6
5/6
Pure Spirit
6
6/6
6/6
 
 
Let's flesh out this hypothesis, and describe what each of these 6 non-physical dimensions might be and how they might differ from one another.
 
From Being to Pure Spirit
 
According to this theory, the most physical of the non-physical dimensions is 'being', a quality shared by even the most primitive plant or animal.  The Hebrew word of this level is 'nefesh'.  It is the common denominator of all life.
 
The next level, 'sensation', is one step less physical than 'being', but it is the conduit through which we maintain contact with the physical world.  When we touch some wood or are burnt by a flame, we are operating at the level of sensation. 
 
'Emotions', according to this hypothesis, is half physical and half 'spiritual'.  It is certainly less tangible than touching something, but emotions such as anger, fear, and sadness certainly have an 'earthy' quality that makes them directly responsive to their physical surroundings.
 
The level that is only 1/3 physical is thinking, one level less tangible than emotions.  Here is where the mind is involved with ideas and thoughts, abstractions that we use to make sense of the world.
 
When we move one more step away from the physical, we come to the 'soul'.  Here almost all connection to the physical is gone, though the soul, at least during life, is intertwined with the body it inhabits.  The Hebrew word for this mostly non-physical dimension is 'neshomah'. 
 
Finally we come to the non-physical dimension that is totally non-physical, the level we call 'pure spirit'.  Perhaps this is the dimension the soul returns to after a person dies and the soul is freed from the body. 
 
These six distinct gradations of non-physical dimensions, from the most to the least physical, all use terms and concepts we have heard before.  We have no 'proof' that they bear any resemblance to what the 6 non-physical dimensions actually are.  This theory springs solely from the hypothesis that perhaps the 6 non-physical dimensions vary in stages from 5/6 physical to not physical at all.
 
We offer this theory purely as food for thought for future thinkers trying to grapple with an understanding of what the 6 non-physical dimensions might be.  One interesting aspect of this theory is that it includes and categorizes many of the non-physical phenomena that have puzzled philosophers and scientists for eons.
 
A New Partnership
 
The above theory is just an initial foray into the new and uncharted frontier that entails investigating what is the nature of the 6 non-physical dimensions.  Surely more elaborate and accurate theories will be put forward in the future by theorists in the fields of science, philosophy, and religion.
 
But one of our key points has been that there is mutually corroborating evidence from both one of the latest scientific theories in theoretical physics (Superstring theory) and one of the oldest religious works (The Bible) indicating that our world has part of it 6 non-physical dimensions.  Investigation into this phenomenon calls for a new partnership between Science and Religion, with each contributing insights, theories, and critical review.  Expertise, experience, and perspective from both scientific and religious minds will be required to conquer this new frontier.  To be successful, old hatchets, grudges, and animosities must be buried.
 
Hopefully it will be a fulfillment of Noah's prophesy:
 
"God will enlarge the domain of Yephet (Science), and he will live in the tents of Shem (Religion)".
 
Beating the Barbarian
 
It is  precisely such a partnership between Science and Religion that may be needed to reverse the extensive and pervasive inroads that Barbarian philosophy has made into our 'modern' culture and thinking.  In many ways over the last 150 years, we have come to accept as a tautology the barbarian dictums of "Eat, drink, and be merry for tomorrow we die", and "Might makes right."
 
As we described in our review of Western philosophy, ever since Hume's ridiculing of Religion and climaxing with Nietzsche's glorifying the barbarian ideals and saying that the Almighty is dead, Science's cold shoulder towards and de-legitimizing of Religion contributed heartily towards opening the Pandora's box of barbarism in our modern world.
 
It is time for a reconciliation, a new partnership between Science and Religion to, among other activities, investigate the 6 non-physical dimensions of reality, and in the process to de-legitimize the Barbarian in our midst.  People who resist this invitation should examine if it is because they have come to enjoy the Barbarian hedonism, license, and nihilism too much to subject Barbarism to the same glare of scrutiny they have subjected Religion to in the past.  Barbarism promises pleasure in the short run and delivers destruction in the long run.  Barbarism mocks and scorns the possibility that there is anything beyond the physical world.  Evidence from both Science and Religion that there are 6 non-physical dimensions answers the Barbarian.
 
Where is God?
 
We have made the case that the Bible, with its description of the talis and menorah,  and its general orientation towards the non-physical, anticipated Superstring theory. The main focus of the Bible, of course, is that there is one God that commands us to be good.  This raises the interesting question as to where, in relation to the 6 non-physical dimension, might God exist?   If we look closely at the talis and menorah, we can see a possible clue.
 
When the Bible describes the strings that are attached to each of the 4 corners of the talis, it says that one of the strings should be blue.  The Talmud explains that 6 of the strings in each corner should be white, and two should be blue to represent God by reminding us of the blue of Heaven.  If the 6 white strings represent the 6 non-physical dimensions, then the 2 blue strings representing God are separate from the white strings yet of a similar material.  The implication is that God has something in common with the 6 non-physical dimensions, in that God is not physical, but is separate from the 6 non-physical dimensions.
 
Similarly, with regards to the Menorah, there is a central shaft that runs through the Menorah that holds the 6 arms in place.  The central shaft has something in common with the 6 arms in that it too has a light of oil on top of it, yet it is distinct from the other 6 arms that it binds together.  If the 6 arms represent the 6 non-physical dimensions, perhaps the central shaft represents God that holds them together.
 
Incidentally, this theme is echoed by another 'symbol' described very early in the Bible, the 7 day week. The 6 weekdays culminate in a 7th special and holy day, the Sabbath, that is separate from the other 6 days.  We are told that on the Sabbath we should rest and devote extra effort to sense God and His holiness.
 
The implication in these symbols is that God has something in common with the 6 non-physical dimensions in that God is also non-physical, but He is separate from them.  What this means deserves investigation by those scientists and religious people investigating the 6 non-physical dimensions.
 
A Word of Caution
 
The Menorah might carry with it another implication that deserves mention.  The six arms of the Menorah would fall apart in disarray without the central shaft that holds them in place.  Perhaps this hints to us that investigating the 6 non-physical dimensions without having a strong love and fear of God to 'orient' us could lead to disarray.  Idol worship, criticized mercilessly in the Bible, was involved in some aspect of worship of the spiritual, but it didn't have a devotion to God to keep it from veering into debauchery, and in some cases was an amalgam of barbarism and religion. 
 
The Bible tells us that involvement with the spiritual should be accompanied by an obedient awe of God.  The holy Temple was a domain of the priests who had to act very carefully. Moses' brother Aaron, the first priest, lost two of his four sons the day of the Temple's inauguration because they did something 'wrong' in its inner sanctum.  Jewish law even prohibits making a model of the Menorah, warning us of the awe we are to have regarding its holiness.  The Talmud tells us that while Rabbi Akiva and some fellow rabbis were investigating the secrets of the spiritual world, one died and another went mad.
 
Perhaps this implies that it is advisable to investigate the 6 non-physical dimensions carefully, accompanied by a healthy respect for God's Will. 
 
A Better Metaphor
 
Since the time of the Greeks, society has held Science in great veneration because Science has been seen by many as the key that mankind uses to understand the world we live in.  The predominant theory of Science at any one time has often been popularized into the weltenschauung, the world view, the metaphor, that people use to see the world.
 
From the time of Aristotle until Sir Isaac Newton, Aristotelian philosophy, astronomy, and other ideas was taught as the way the world really works.  Questioning Aristotle was tantamount to heresy. 
 
This was overturned in the 17th Century by Newton's concept of the movement of the Heavenly spheres governed by the law of gravity.  The world was seen as a smoothly functioning clock with a myriad of pieces dancing in synchronization.  We can hear this world view of how Renaissance Man saw himself when we listen to Renaissance music, with its clockwork precision of harmonies.
 
This world view was overturned again in the late 19th Century by the theories of Charles Darwin, and the extension of  his ideas by Nietzsche.  Many people adopted this world view that the world is a jungle, and that progress is made by the survival of the fittest in the struggle to remain alive.  We can see this world view reflected in the resurgence of Barbarism a la Hitler in the 20th century.
 
Science's 20th Century theories, including Einstein's theory of Relativity, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and quantum mechanics, is reflected in the existential view of the world where everything is seen as relative and uncertain.
 
Let's examine what view of the world could spring from a popularization of Superstring theory, that is as yet too new to have been adopted as a popular metaphor of the world.  According to Supersting theory, everything is made up of tiny vibrating strings in 10 dimensions that combine together to create better arrangements  The metaphor would picture the world as filled with music, with the vibrating strings in search of greater harmony. Green and Schwartz, the authors of the theory, compare the superstrings to violin strings. 
 
Superstring theory's revelation that there are 6 non-physical dimensions can help people be more comfortable with the concept of a spiritual, metaphysical aspect of reality.  Applying this metaphor, we see the world filled with music and spirituality, the vibrating strings dancing in search of greater harmony.
 
We feel this is a more attractive, and hopefully more accurate, view of the world than Nietzsche's jungle or Heisenberg's uncertainty.  Perhaps a popularization of Superstring theory would have a salutary effect on society.
 
Potential Applications
 
A team effort by Science and Religion to explore the nature of the 6 non-physical dimensions has many practical applications.  We will list a few:
 
Understanding Relationships - Perhaps no aspect of living is as crucial and central to our lives as relationships.  This includes the relationships we have with our family (spouse, parents, children, and siblings), friends, and those people we work with.  Psychology has offered many valuable insights into these areas.  However, understanding harmony and discord between people and why some are attracted to others and get along, while others bicker, is really more of an art than a science.
 
Perhaps much of what goes on in these areas is operating at the level of the 6 non-physical dimensions, and scientific investigation of these dimensions will yield a more precise understanding of the mechanisms of relationships.  This would have practical application, for example, in promoting marital harmony, or developing a questionnaire  for singles that could predict the likelihood of a good marriage.  For example, singles could be asked questions that might determine the nature of the 6 'songs' each person 'sings' on each non-physical dimension, and the likelihood of harmony or dissonance in each of these dimensions.
 
Understanding The Mind - Perhaps the mind has resisted scientific scrutiny and understanding because aspects of its activity operate in the 6 non-physical dimensions.  If true, study of these dimensions may give us greater insight into consciousness, sensation, thinking emotion, dreams, and so on.
 
Understanding Government And Business - Why do some people make better leaders than others, what is charisma, and what can reduce the chances of a government veering towards dictatorship or anarchy?  What kinds of business organizations and work environments make for more effective businesses?  Perhaps understanding the harmony and dissonance that occurs on the level of the 6 non-physical dimensions will help us understand these phenomena better.
 
Reconciling Science and Religion - As our outline of history showed, Science and Religion have not been getting along well with each other for almost 200 years.  One cause of this has been Science's skepticism about anything but a physical world.  Perhaps a mutual investigation by Science and Religion into the 6 non-physical dimensions will reopen channels of communication harmony and mutual understanding.
 
Overcoming the Barbarian - The discord between Science and Religion has empowered the Barbarian, and perhaps a reconciliation between Science and Religion would de-legitimize the Barbarian.  History has shown that a society where the Barbarian rules eventually destroys itself.  This is also true on the level of a person's individual life.  The Barbarian philosophy has the appeal of 'pleasure at all costs' and 'abandon', but its inherent selfishness sows the seeds of personal and social dissolution.  The appeal is seductive, and infiltrates our lives on many insidious and unconscious levels, such as materialism, hedonism, and narcissism.  Those who ascribe to the philosophies of Science and Religion would do well to examine themselves to see in what ways the Barbarian philosophy has permeated their consciousness and lifestyles.  Perhaps a greater understanding of the 6 non-physical dimensions will help us understand better why Barbarism causes dissonance rather than harmony, and will give us tools to reduce the effects of Barbarism in our lives.
 
CHAPTER 6 – CONSCIOUSNESS
 
Uneasiness
The suggestion of Superstring Theory that our world has ten dimensions, six of them 'non-physical', is a tantalizing idea, and we naturally wonder what these six 'non-physical' dimensions might be like. The intrigue thickens when we see that the six curving arms of the Menorah and the six white strings of the Talis also suggest the existence of six 'non-physical' dimensions. But this idea of six extra dimensions somehow floating around us, extending in some way the basic four physical dimensions, is unclear at best and can make us uneasy and queasy.
 
We can see that a basketball in our hands has height, width, and depth, and that it flies to the hoop through time, so we are comfortable with these four basic dimensions. We would like to understand the mysterious six additional dimensions by seeing and experiencing them, but we remind ourselves that this might be problematical because they are 'not physical.'  We ask, therefore, what and where are these six 'non-physical dimensions', and is it possible to see any 'physical' evidence that they exist or at least impinge on the physical world?  We would appreciate some conceptual framework to deal with and think about this further.
 
Scientists and religious thinkers should put their heads together while investigating this puzzling frontier.  Scientists can contribute their objective analytical ability, and their track record of having uncovered some of nature’s best secrets.  Religious thinkers can contribute their age-old tradition of contemplating the non-physical aspects of the world, that they refer to as the spiritual realm of existence.  All will benefit by mutual brainstorming and exploration.
 
A Theory
To contribute to this investigation, we will now flesh out and delve deeper into the  hypothesis we suggested in the previous chapter.  It is only an initial attempt to grapple with this enigma of what it might mean that our world includes six 'non-physical' dimensions.  We hope that it contains some insights to stimulate the thinking of others in this area.
 
Pictures are worth a thousand words, so we will try to develop a conceptual model with diagrams.  Let's start with two ways of representing the 'spread' between the physical and 'non-physical' world.
 
In Figure 1, a black box represent the physical and a white box represents the non-physical. The four physical dimensions are shown, along with a white box that is an initial attempt to portray the non-physical world.  Figure 2 uses a traditional X-Y coordinate diagram, with the X-axis arbitrarily representing the physical world with its four dimensions, and the Y-axis representing the non-physical world that juts out in a new and different dimension compared with the X-axis.
 
 
 
The first question that jumps out at us when looking at these diagrams is: where are the six non-physical dimensions?  The one white box and the Y-axis don't look like enough. Where could all six  non-physical dimensions be, and how might they be represented?
 
We would like to suggest the possibility that there is only one purely non-physical dimension, and that the other five unaccounted for dimensions are combinations of the physical and non-physical.  They might be, in a sense, mixtures or amalgams of the physical and non-physical, perhaps serving as stepping stones to bridge the gap between the physical and the non-physical.  The physical and non-physical may be as different as oil and water, and these intermediate dimensions serve to mediate between the physical and non-physical, allowing them to mix and cooperate in some way.  This could be compared to a staircase with five steps going from one level to another. 
 
We will explore this hypothesis in the spirit that it might unearth some clues as to what it could mean that the world contains a total of ten dimensions combining the physical and non-physical. We hope it sheds a bit of light in the exploration of this new and uncharted realm.
 
Figures 3 and 4 shows this idea of five intermediate dimensions, each combining the physical and non-physical in different amounts.  We divide the gap between the physical and non-physical in equal amounts, going from 5/6 physical to 1/6 physical.   We now find we have a full set of ten dimensions.  Dimensions 1 to 4 are totally physical.  The tenth dimension is totally non-physical, and dimensions 5 to 9 are progressively less physical as they approach the tenth dimension.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trying To Understand These 'Extra' Dimensions
 
We will now use these diagrams to try to help us understand what it might mean for there to be five dimensions that are somehow mixtures of the physical and the non-physical.  Let's look at the X-Y axis diagram in Figure 4.  We are familiar with the physical world represented by the X-axis, the world of objects that we use our body and senses to move, touch, and see.  Try to picture being in this physical world of the X-axis, and looking 'up' at the other six dimensions in Figure 4.
 
The first thing we notice is that the eye in the physical world of the X-axis can't see the Y-axis at all.  The Y-axis is invisible to the eye looking up from the X-axis because it is perpendicular to it.  This implies that the tenth dimension, being purely non-physical, cannot be perceived from the physical world. 
 
But what do we see if we look 'up' from the physical world at the intermediate five dimensions that somehow combine the physical and the non-physical?  Figure 5 shows this idea.  Each of the six diagrams in Figure 5 represents the perspective from the physical world looking up at dimensions five through ten that represent mixtures of physical and non-physical.  Because of the angle of these intermediate dimensions, the fifth dimension is most visible, the ninth dimension is least visible, and the tenth dimension is invisible. 
 
We've drawn on top of each diagram how each of these six dimensions appear from the vantage point of the physical world.  The black part of the rectangle represents what the physical world can 'see' of dimensions five through ten. We notice that the black rectangles get narrower as we move from dimension five through ten. The black rectangle that represents how much the physical world 'sees' the fifth dimension is the widest, and the black rectangle that shows how the physical world 'sees' the ninth dimension is the narrowest. 
 
This implies that from the perspective of the physical world represented by the X-axis, we can somehow sense in progressively lesser degrees the physical component of these six dimensions.  The fifth dimension, that has the largest physical component, is perceived the most from the physical world, and the ninth dimension that has the least physical component is perceived the least.  The tenth dimension that is purely non-physical is not perceived at all from the vantage point of the physical world.
 
 
 
 
 
The rectangles at the top of each of these six diagrams, that depict how dimensions five to ten are 'seen' from the physical world, are the same as the rectangles in Figure 3 describing the same dimensions.   
 
What Are The Six 'Non-Physical' Dimensions Like?
 
According to this idea, the tenth dimension is completely non-physical, but dimensions five to nine have a physical component that goes from fairly substantial to fairly small.  Considering that we live in the physical world, we should be able to see traces of how the physical aspect of the fifth to the ninth dimension impinges on the physical world.  The fifth dimension is the most physical and tangible, and we should find it easier than the other intermediate dimensions to see some evidence of its existence in the physical world.  Then the sixth to the ninth dimensions would have a progressively smaller 'imprint' on the physical world, making their physical component harder to 'see' in the physical world.
 
To explain this in terms of the black and white rectangles in Figure 3, we should be able to see evidence of the black component of dimensions five to nine in the physical world, because the black part of each rectangle represents its physical component.  Each of these five 'intermediate' dimensions also has a 'non-physical' component, represented by the white part of the rectangle, that leaves no imprint on the physical world. 
 
In each of the dimensions five to nine there is a line of demarcation separating its physical from its non-physical component, where the black part of the rectangle meets the white part.  It is as if this line represents a kind of 'wall', the left of the wall being physical and the right of the wall being non-physical. 
 
To expand this idea, we will use an image from Superstring Theory that says the world is made up of vibrating strings.  Figure 6 pictures that in each of these five intermediate dimensions, we (in the physical world) can grab a hold of the part of the string on the physical side of this wall and shake it.  This will shake the part of the string that extends into the non-physical part of the dimension.  The part of the string that we can grab onto in the physical world, to the left of the 'wall', vibrates the entire dimension, both physical and non-physical, though from the vantage point of the physical world we can only see the physical aspect of these vibrations. 
 
 
 
 
An intriguing image emerges that in each of these 'mixture' dimensions, we can grab a hold of the physical part of this string and shake the string that extends throughout the entire dimension, even its non-physical part.  Let's call the physical part of the string that we can take hold of it's physical 'handle'.  By shaking this physical handle, we can send vibrations through the entire dimension, including the part that is non-physical.  In the fifth dimension we have the longest physical handle.  In the ninth dimension we have a tiny handle, but if we shake it, we are sending vibrations via the string into the 5/6ths of the dimension that is non-physical.
 
Superstring Theory tells us that the whole world is made up of vibrating strings that forms a kind of orchestra whose music is ever changing.  To carry this image a bit further, we can see each of these intermediate dimensions as vibrating with a kind of music that varies in pitch, intensity, and meter. The music in each of these dimensions can have its own character and melody that varies at different places and times.  By grabbing hold of the physical handle in a dimension, we can change the melody, rhythm, and loudness of the music in that dimension, and the music extends even into the non-physical portion of that dimension.
 
Relating This To The World We Know
 
This image of part-physical, part non-physical dimensions pulsating with music is interesting and intriguing, but how can we relate it to anything we are familiar with in our experience on good old terra firma?  Can we find any phenomena in the world around us that bears any similarly to such a description?
 
As we mentioned in the previous chapter, there is in fact a class of phenomena that has had scientists and philosophers puzzled for eons.  We are referring to activities such as thinking, feeling, and consciousness.  After thousands of years of scientific scrutiny, these phenomena are almost as enigmatic as they always were.  What is consciousness, and what are we doing when we think a thought, or feel an emotion?  Scientists have tried to probe and  measure these activities with their instruments, but are still at a loss as to how to explain them.  It has even been a puzzle as to why thinking, feeling, and consciousness remain so elusive, and why they seem less tangible than the regular physical world of tables and buildings.
 
Therefore we present the proposition that perhaps these enigmatic phenomena such as thinking and feeling have something to do with the semi-physical dimensions we have been discussing. Perhaps we perceive only their physical component, and it's their non-physical component that makes them so enigmatic.  As we mentioned in the previous chapter, we made a list that tries to correlate this class of phenomena with the dimensions five to ten. We simply ordered them from what seemed the least physical to the most physical.  This is the list we came up with:
           
Name
Dimension
Part Physical
Part Non-Phyiscal
Being
1
5/6
1/6
Sensation
2
4/6
2/6
Emotion
3
3/6
3/6
Thought
4
2/6
4/6
Soul
5
1/6
5/6
Pure Spirit
6
6/6
6/6
 
There are probably many ways to match this class of phenomena with these six dimensions, and this is just an initial foray.  Before we explain what we mean by each of these terms, we show in Figure 7 a summary of what we have described so far in this chapter.
 
The Six Non-Physical Dimensions
 
We will now attempt to match the six non-physical dimensions implied by Superstring Theory, the Talis, and the Menorah with phenomena that philosophers and scientists have found 'ethereal' and inexplicable for thousands of years.  By 'non-physical dimensions' we mean those dimensions that are not totally physical, and have at least a non-physical component.  Please grant us literary license in this section, because we will attempt to use the terms as they are used in common parlance. 
 
Pure Spirit - We will start with the tenth dimension that is totally non-physical, and match it up with the term 'pure spirit'.  This is the Y-axis that cannot be perceived by the physical world at all.  Perhaps this is what religion refers to as the 'spiritual' world, where the soul comes from before a person is born and where it returns after the person dies.  The Talmud says that when a feotus is in its mother's womb, there is a flame above its head that it uses to see from one end of the world to the other, and perhaps this flame (that is reminiscent of the Menorah) emanates from the tenth dimension.  Maybe we will never be able to view this dimension directly from the physical world, but only get a glimpse of it by seeing how it mixes in different measures with the physical in the five 'intermediate' dimensions. It is possible that understanding this tenth dimension better would give us an inkling as to the nature of God.
 
Soul -  This is the ninth dimension that is 5/6th non-physical and has only a small physical handle to grab onto.  This is the part of us that is closest to the spiritual world while we are alive, and when we look inside ourselves we can barely perceive it because of its small  physical component.  The Hebrew word for this is 'Neshama', and we try to engage and rouse it when we pray.  Truly Religious people manage to have the music in this dimension of themselves be richly harmonic and melodious.
 
Thinking - The eighth dimension is the home of our thoughts, and because it is 1/3 physical, it has twice as much physicality compared to the soul that is only 1/6 physical.  Thinking is somewhat more tangible than our soul, but it is still mostly ineffable because it is 2/3rd non-physical.   Intellectuals and those who feel most akin to the Greek legacy try to imbue this dimension of themselves with the greatest vibrancy.  It is a strange idea indeed that as you are thinking right now that you shaking a string with a handle 1/3rd physical, and that 2/3rd of its activity is taking place in a non-physical world.  Perhaps that is why thinking seems familiar and yet so enigmatic to us. 
 
Emotion - We've matched emotions to the seventh dimension that is half physical and half non-physical.  When emotions such as happiness, sadness, love, anger, and fear course through our body, they feel more physical than thoughts, but they also have a substantial ethereal quality.  A poet might describe strong emotions as combining equal portions of Heaven and Earth.  They vigorously engage our body, but there's usually a puzzling, enigmatic quality to them that might reflect the half that is non-physical.
 
Sensation - If we sink our teeth into a luscious peach, burn our hands on a stove, or get a  massage at a health club, we can feel how engaged our body is and why we've matched sensation to the sixth dimension that is 2/3rd physical.  But perhaps Science has not been able to fully understand what it means to feel pleasure and pain because it is also 1/3rd non-physical.  Touch the texture of something now with your hand, and feel how physical the sensation is, and yet there remains a part of the sensation that is elusive and hard to explain, and that might be due to the part that is non-physical. This is the dimension that the Barbarian is most focused on, in maximizing the pleasurable sensations he feels. 
 
Being - There is a motor-like hum that seems to exist in all living creatures, and we call this 'being'.  It is mostly physical, but there is a tinge of other-wordiness to it, and that is why we match it to the fifth dimension that is 5/6th physical and 1/6th non-physical.  It is what a philosopher might call the bedrock of existence.  Being is built solidly on the four physical dimensions of height, width, depth, and time, but it is also one step above them and has a taste, a hint, a sliver of the non-physical world. The Hebrew word for being is 'nefesh' and it is a quality we share with an amoeba and a blade of grass.
 
The Shadow of the Tenth Dimension
 
The nature of the tenth dimension remains a great mystery.  According to our model, it is purely non-physical and cannot be perceived from the physical world because it is 'perpendicular' to it.  But what is it, and what is it made of?  Though we cannot see it directly, perhaps we can see it indirectly because it makes up a large part of the five intermediate dimensions that form stepping stones between the physical world and the mysterious tenth dimension.  The model suggests that every time we think a thought, we create vibrations in the eighth dimension, and 2/3rd of those vibrations are non-physical -  the same non-physical quality that the tenth dimension is made up of. 
 
It's as if the tenth dimension is an invisible wall that casts a white shadow on the physical world by its involvement in the fifth to ninth dimensions.  We are somehow involved in this non-physical quality in varying degrees every time we sense a sensation, feel a feeling, or think a thought.  Perhaps, as some Religious thinkers have claimed, the 'Kingdom of Heaven is within', and we are involved with this ineffable substance of the tenth dimension as we are thinking right now.  Perhaps Science will be able to discover more about the tenth dimension indirectly by exploring how it mixes with the five intermediate dimensions. 
 
Five Part Harmony
 
Superstring Theory says the world is made up of tiny superstrings that vibrate like musical instruments.  We have extended this idea to suggest that each of the five intermediate dimensions can vibrate independently of each other, creating its own 'music'.  This music of a dimension can have its own character, distinguished by its pitch, rhythm, and intensity.  It can be melodious or raucous, fast or slow, loud or soft, repetitive or constantly changing.  Each of us at every moment is playing a symphony (or at least a quintet) in five part harmony, with each of the five dimensions contributing its own musical accompaniment.  The five dimensions can be in harmony and synchronous with each other, or they can be out of synch and produce a terrible cacophony.  In each person these dimensions can be quiet or prominent.
 
Each person has their own character and personality, perhaps in part because of this five part symphony they are playing.  Look at people's faces and into their eyes and you can almost see and 'hear' the symphony they are playing.  The person's 'music' is being generated from within them, and its character tends to be fairly consistent.  It is reflected in a person's voice, generated by vibrating strings called vocal chords.  One person may be extremely emotional, and their seventh dimension is very active, intense, and changing, while another person may have a very subdued and quiet seventh dimension.  One person may have a loud sixth dimension (sensual)  while another may have a dramatic ninth dimension (soul).
 
It is interesting how this explains a difference between the three major philosophical types that we have discussed throughout this book.  The Barbarian focuses on the sixth dimension of the senses, concerned mostly with his own pleasure.  He usually doesn't attach much importance to the 'higher' dimensions. The Scientist regards the eighth dimension of thought as primary, and through books, thinking, and discussion, can create for himself a rich world of thoughts and ideas.  The truly Religious person concentrates on developing the harmonies of the ninth dimension of the soul.  He feels himself close to the ineffable tenth dimension, that he senses is somehow connected to the nature of God, and wants to make sure that the music of his soul is sweet, melodic, and pleasing to God. 
 
There is no reason why a person can't strive to have beautiful music on all five of these intermediate dimensions, and have them all harmonize with each other.  This might be considered an ideal to strive towards.  
 
The Barbarian and the Scientist agree that there is nothing besides the physical world.  As a result the Barbarian focuses on indulging his physical desires, and the Scientist discounts evidence that is not perceived through the physical senses.  Perhaps they would change if they saw the importance of non-physical reality, and how the non-physical part of the 'higher dimensions' animates the world and gives it its character.  For example, how would they respond if they could see the affects of their actions on the ninth dimension, their soul?
 
Sleep and Dreams
 
We spend almost one third of our lives sleeping, and we know that we feel refreshed after a good night's sleep and feel tired if we put sleep off for too long.  But Science has not provided us with a clear understanding of what sleep is and why we need it so much.  An additional mystery is why we dream. Experiments have shown that rapid eye movement (REM) accompanies dreaming, and if people are woken up as they start dreaming and never get a chance to dream, they remain extremely tired even though they have slept for eight hours.  Scientists don't know why this is true.
 
Our life includes activity on the five semi-physical dimensions.  While we are awake we are essentially in the physical world, and are active in the physical portions of these dimensions, though vibrations in the physical portions have their effect in the non-physical portions that we can't perceive in the physical world. 
 
Perhaps when we sleep, we pass over to the other side of the 'wall' and attend to things from the vantage point of the non-physical portion of these dimensions.  In a sense we shake the string from the non-physical side of the wall, that has a resulting effect on the physical side of the wall in the form of dreams and greater physical relaxation.  The world probably looks very different from the non-physical side of the wall, and we need to 'go' there and resolve issues, make changes, and adjust the harmonies from the non-physical perspective.  When we cross to the non-physical side of the wall we can't be attentive to physical reality, and that is why our body becomes motionless and we lose consciousness of physical reality during sleep.  But perhaps at the same time we gain consciousness of non-physical reality.   
 
Relationships
 
Each of us is a composer and conductor, playing music in five part harmony in the fifth through the ninth partly physical dimensions.  This music defines our character and personality.  How this music harmonizes with other people's music determines how we get along with other people.  We get along with some people better than others because our music harmonizes with some people better than others.  Perhaps someday we'll be able to measure the melodies that people generate in the dimensions of being, sensation, emotion, thought, and soul, and watch how these melodies of different people interact with each other.  It might be possible to use such measurements to predict how different people will get along.
 
Our melodies change over time in response to events around us. We may harmonize well with another person in one dimension such as the eighth dimension of thought, but not on other dimensions.  Or some of our emotional melodies such as happiness may synchronize well with them but other emotions such as anger may be discordant.  It may be that 'love' is the harmony we can establish with another person in many dimensions.
 
We say that a person 'falls' in love and 'falls' asleep indicating that both involve 'falling' into a speical mode, perhaps because they involve non-physical activity on the 'other side of the wall'. 
 
A distinctive aspect of marital relations is that it can intensely involve all five of the semi-physical dimensions. It can be much more than just the physical, potentially involving being, sensation, emotion, thought, and soul.  It can ideally involve music in all the dimensions.
 
Charisma and leadership is that ability where a person can make other people's melodies harmonize with theirs.  A good political or business leader can project a melody so strong, on so many dimensions, that others change their melodies to harmonize with the leader's.  This ability can be good for reducing anarchy, but it can be dangerous in the hands of a demagogue.  But even on a small scale, when salespeople try to sell something or when we try to influence or convince someone, we are trying to get another person's melodies to harmonize with ours.
 
The Appeal Of Music
 
Most cultures and many subcultures develop their own music that expresses something unique about them and reflects their character.  The music evolves as the morés of the culture changes.  As Western music went through periods called Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, and Modern, it reflected changes in the culture.  Today our popular music includes Rock, Country, Jazz, Punk, Blues, and Rap to reflect the subcultures they come from. 
 
Perhaps music has such a great appeal to us because we yearn for a physical expression of the activity that is taking place in the five semi-physical dimensions of our culture..  We sense that there is 'non-physical' activity happening in these dimensions that is unique to our culture or subculture at this point in time, so we create a style of music that strikes a responsive chord and makes it more tangible for us.
 
Consciousness
 
Consciousness is therefore the sum total of the music we generate on these five semi-physical dimensions.  Half of the activity in these dimensions is non-physical, and that is perhaps why an understanding of consciousness has eluded Science for so long.  Understanding the non-physical aspect of these dimensions will require a great deal of research.  We may find it difficult to directly measure the non-physical aspects of dimensions such as emotion, thought, and soul.  But perhaps we will able to measure them indirectly by watching the vibration of the 'string' on the physical side of the wall, and infer what is happening on the non-physical side of the wall.
 
We wonder what it is like on the other side of the wall, in the non-physical realm.  Perhaps that is where part of us originated before we started mixing with the physical world as we were gestating in our mother's womb, and perhaps that is where we will return after our stay in the physical world is over.  Perhaps we visit that realm every night when we sleep. As we are conscious now, perhaps a key portion of our consciousness is activity that is occurring right now on the 'other' side of the wall, in the non-physical realm.
 
APPENDIX - INSIGHTS FROM POETRY
 
From the dawn of time, people have written verse about the concerns of their heart. When people feel hope and worry, love and fear, they often try to express and communicate their thoughts and feelings in the form of poetry.
 
In Chapters Two and Three, we traced the development of Western philosophy up until the present, showing how the three main philosophical archetypes - science, religion, and barbarism - interacted and developed throughout history.  We used the quotations of philosophers to help us see the changes in Man's outlook
 
To give us further insight and understanding into the changes we described, we will now look at some examples of verse that can reveal more about how the heart and mind of Man has changed over time.   Poets can capture the spirit of their time in a few words, and many of them wrote about the spirit of science, religion, and barbarism.  We will now examine some representative poems to try to gain a deeper understanding into how the spirit of Man developed through history.
 
THE PSALMS OF DAVID
 
The psalms written by King David in Jerusalem about 2700 years ago are prime examples of the religious personality, and give us insights into the nature of that personality.  Some themes that shine out in his psalms are David's love of God, his desire to be good and avoid the path of the wicked (who we call the barbarian), how small Man is in relation to God, and his plea for forgiveness. 
 
Psalm 23
 
A song of David:
The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not lack.
In lush meadows He lays me down, beside tranquil waters He leads me.
He restores my soul.  He leads me on paths of justice for His Name's sake.
Though I walk in the valley overshadowed by death,
I will fear no evil, for You are with me.
You prepare a table before me in full view of my tormentors.
You anointed my head with oil, my cup overflows.
May only goodness and kindness pursue me all the days of my life,
And I shall dwell in the House of the Lord for long years.
 
The Psalms are love songs to God, to Whom David expresses his loyalty, gratitude, and passionate devotion:
 
I will love You, O Lord, my strength. (18:2)
To fulfill Your will, my G-d, have I desired.  (40:9)
My soul thirsts for You, my flesh longs for You. (63:2)
My soul cleaves after You. (63:3)
May my words be sweet to Him - I will rejoice in the Lord. (104:34)
My heart is steadfast, O God, I will sing and I will make music even with my soul. (108:2)
 
David tries to be a good person, and offers his definition of who a good person is:
 
Psalm 15
A song of David.
O Lord; Who may sojourn in Your Tent?
Who may dwell in Your Holy Mountain?
He who walks in perfect innocence, does what is right,
and speaks the truth from his heart;
Who has no slander on his tongue, who has done his friend no evil,
nor cast disgrace upon his intimate;
In whose eyes the despicable is repulsive, but those who fear the Lord he honors;
One who does not retract, though he has sworn to his hurt;
Who lends not his money at interest, nor takes a bribe against the innocent.
Whoever does these shall forever not falter.
 
David describes the good person as someone who fears and honors God, and is honest, upright, and generous.  In stark contrast, David depicts the 'wicked' (the barbarian) as being selfish, indulgent, and oppressive - traits that are related to the wicked person's not believing in God:
 
Psalm 73:6
Their necklace is pride, enwrapping their body in their own violence.
Bulging from corpulence are their eyes,
They went beyond the fantasies of the heart
They consume and speak of foul oppression.
Out of haughtiness they speak.
They direct their mouth against Heaven, and their tongue struts on earth.
 
Psalm 10:2
In the wicked one's haughtiness, he hunts down the poor
Who are caught in the devices which they have contrived.
For the wicked man glories in his personal desires,
and the brazen robber blesses himself for blaspheming the Lord.
The wicked man, in the pride of his countenance, says: 'He will not avenge!'
All his thoughts are: 'There is no G-d.'
...He fills his mouth with oaths, with deception and malice,
And under his tongue are mischief and iniquity.
He waits in ambush near open cities, in hidden places he murders the innocent,
His eyes spy on the helpless.
He lurks in hiding like a lion, he lurks in concealment to seize the poor.
 
This gives us insight into the nature of the barbarian, who emphasizes that there is no God, focuses on indulging his own desires,  and takes advantage of others.
 
At least in part, the awe that David feels towards God springs from how limited Man is in relation to God:
 
The heavens declare the glory of G-d,
and the expanse of the sky tells of His handiwork. (19:2)
 
What is man that You recognize him?
The son of frail human that you reckon with him?
Man is like a breath, his days are like a passing shadow. (144:3)
 
What is the frail human that You should remember him?
And what is the son of mortal man that You should be mindful of him?
Yet You have made him only a little less than the angels,
And crowned him with a soul and a splendor. (8:5)
 
Filled with love and awe, David cries out for God to overlook his shortcomings and shower him with goodness:
 
Instruct me, O Lord, in Your way, that I may walk in Your truth,
dedicate my heart to fear Your Name. (86:11)
 
Show me favor, according to Your kindness,
according to Your vast compassion erase my transgressions.
Abundantly cleanse me from my iniquity, and from my sin purify me.
For my transgressions I recognize, and my sin is before me always. (51:3)
 
Hide Your face from my sins, and all my iniquities erase.
A pure heart create for me, O G-d, and a steadfast spirit renew within me.
Cast me not away from Your Presence, and Your Holy Spirit take not from me.
Restore to me the joy of Your salvation, and with a generous spirit sustain me. (51:9)
 
Place my tears in Your flask.  Are they not Your record? (56:9)
 
King David's psalms embody the spirit and feelings of the religious personality, and throughout the millennia they have formed a central part of much religious worship.  They give us great insight into the religious mind.
 
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE'S SONNETS
 
We will now fly over eons of time to the English Renaissance and to another towering soul, William Shakespeare.  Between King David and Shakespear the Greeks shone their light on the world, Rome rose and fell, and the Church put its stamp on the thought of Europe.  We can see in Shakespeare's writings the Renaissance's rediscovery of the Greek ideals of the nobility of Man, reason, and art. 
 
The Greeks agreed with Religion that one of the challenges of the human condition is to ensure that desire does not jump over its boundaries and become destructive. (The Barbarian is not concerned with this problem).  While Religion assigns this task of internal policeman to the fear and love of God, the Greeks assigned this job to Man's Reason.  We will see that when Shakespeare speaks of love for women, he understands that love is given its parameters by Reason.
 
The Renaissance emphasized the Greek tenet that Man is to be put on a pedestal. Devotion was directed more towards other people, and less on God.   Just as King David devoted most of his Psalms to expressing his love towards God, Shakespeare devotes most of his 154 Sonnets to expressing his love towards other people, specifically romantic love towards women:
 
from Sonnet 76:
Oh know, sweet love, I always write of you,
And you and love are still my argument.
 
from Sonnet 17:
If I could write the beauty of your eyes,
And in fresh numbers number all your graces,
The age to come would say: 'This poet lies;
Such heavenly touches ne'er touch'd earthly faces.'
 
Then happy I that love and am belov'd. (sonnet 25)
Take all my loves, my love, yea, take them all. (40)
Gentle thou art, and therefore to be won; Beauteous thou art, therefore to be assail'd.(41)
Being your slave, what should I do but tend Upon the hours and times of your desire? ( 57)
So are you to my thoughts as food to life. (75)
Such is my love, to thee I so belong. (88)
Thy love is better than high birth to me (91)
Let not my love be call'd idolatry (105)
For nothing in this wide universe I call, Save thou my rose: in it thou art my all. (109)
 
Instead of the God-centered orientation of the Psalms and the Middle Ages, Shakespeare talks very little about God, and instead reflects the Man-centered orientation of the Renaissance and the Greek philosophy that inspired it:
 
from Sonnet 53:
Describe Adonis, and the counterfeit
is poorly imitated after you;
On Helen's cheek all art of beauty set,
And you in Grecian tires are painted new.
 
However no matter how great Shakespeare's love is, he recognizes clearly that he is mortal, and that the major enemies of love and life are time and death:
 
And nothing 'gainst Time's scythe can make defense. (sonnet 12)
All in war with Time for love of you. (15)
Make war upon this bloody tyrant Time (16)
Devouring Time (19)
Time's injurious hand (63)
Time's thievish progress to eternity (77)
Time's tyranny. (115)
Shall worms, inheritors of this excess, Eat up thy charge? Is this thy body's end? (146)
 
Acknowledging that the ravages of Time destroys beauty and love, Shakespeare says that he can use his mind, creativity, and art to come to the rescue by immortalizing his love in his beautiful words.  Indeed, there is some truth to it, as we are reading  his verses today:
 
from Sonnet 55
Not marble, nor the gilded monuments
Of princes shall outlive this powerful rhyme;
But you shall shine more bright in these contents
Than unswept stone besmear'd with sluttish time.
 
Yet do thy worst, old Time: despite thy wrong My love shall in my verse ever live young.(19)
That in black ink my love may still shine bright. (68)
Your monument shall be my gentle verse. (81)
 
Sonnet 18
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou are more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date.
Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often in his hold complexion dimm'd;
And every fair from fair sometimes declines,
By chance, or nature's changing source, untrimm'd;
But thy eternal summer shall not fade
Nor lose possession of that fair thou we'st,
Nor shall Death brag thou wand'rest in his shade
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st.
   So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
   So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
 
Though Shakespeare so often writes of love's glorious power and of his poetry's ability to eternalize it, he admits that love can have its dark moments.  For example, the woman he loves can chose another man:
 
from Sonnet 42
That thou hast her, it is not all my grief;
And it may be said I lov'd her dearly:
That she hath thee is of my wailing chief,
A loss in love that touches me more nearly.
 
Shakespeare writes of the pain he feels when his loved one doesn't treat him well:
 
from Sonnet 132
Thine eyes I love, and they, as pitying me, -
Knowing thy heart torment me with disdain -
 
In his later sonnets, Shakespeare focuses on the problem that can occur when love clouds his Reason and causes him to act blindly in ways he would rather not:
 
from Sonnet 137
Thou blind fool, Love, what dost thou to mine eyes,
That they behold, and see not what they see?
They know what beauty is, see where it lies,
Yet what the best is take the worst to be.
 
from Sonnet 141
But my five wits nor my five senses can
Dissuade one foolish heart from serving thee.
 
from Sonnet 147
My reason, the physician to my love,
Angry that his prescriptions are not kept.
...For I have sworn thee fair, and thought thee bright,
Who art as black as hell, as dark as night.
 
Shakespeare admits that in the extreme, love's power to throw off Reason can lead to what he refers to as 'lust', and what we have called 'Barbarism'. In this sonnet, he claims that no person is immune to the potential destruction caused when unchecked passion bursts the bonds of Reason:
 
Sonnet 129
The expense of spirit in a waste of shame
Is lust in action; and till action, lust
Is perjur'd, murderous, bloody, full of blame,
Savage, extreme, rude, cruel, not to trust;
Enjoy'd no sooner but despised straight;
Past reason hunted; and no sooner had,
Past reason hated, as a swallow'd bait
On purpose laid to make the taker mad, -
Mad in pursuit, and in possession so;
Had, having, and in quest to have, extreme;
A bliss in proof; and prov'd, a very woe;
Before, a joy propos'd; behind, a dream.
  All this the world well knows; yet none knows well
  To shun the heaven that leads men to this hell.
 
In these powerful and prophetic words, Shakespeare tells us that desire that overflows the boundaries of Reason becomes 'lust' that is 'murderous, bloody, full of blame, savage, extreme, rude, cruel, not to trust'.  Shakespeare describes that one of the ironies of lust is that its promise of joy is illusory, 'enjoy'd no sooner but despised straight'.  In its 'hunt' for gratification, lust goes 'past reason', but 'no sooner' does it achieve its goal than it hates what it did, also 'past reason'.  It's a 'bliss in proof', i.e. expectation (as in an artist's preliminary 'proof'), but 'prov'd', i.e. in actuality, a 'very woe'. 
 
In the last two lines Shakespeare says that although 'the world well knows' the destructive nature of lust (Barbarism), 'none' are strong enough to 'shun' the beautiful picture painted by desire as 'heaven', but that in reality 'leads men to this hell.'  When the light of Reason and the fear of God are overthrown by 'lust', we careen towards 'hell'. 
 
In this next sonnet, Shakespeare describes a person who can control his passion and 'inherit heaven's graces'.  But if such a person falls, he falls much farther than others:
 
Sonnet 94
They that have power to hurt, and will do none,
That do not do the thing they most do show,
Who, moving others, are themselves as stone,
Unmoved, cold, and to temptation slow, -
They rightly do inherit heaven's graces,
And husband nature's riches from expense;
They are the lords and owners of their faces,
Others, but stewards of their excellence.
The summer's flower is to the summer sweet
Though to itself it only live and die,
But if that flower with base infection meet,
The basest weed outbraves his dignity:
  For sweetest things turn sourest by their deeds;
  Lilies that fester smell far worse than weeds.
 
This sonnet describes a person who has the 'power to hurt' and the visible authority that 'show's, and yet exercises an ethical restraint to act righteously and be 'unmoved' and 'cold' to the 'temptation' that accompanies power.  Such people can 'inherit heaven's graces', and this benevolence shows on their 'faces', and 'others' become 'stewards (servants) of their excellence'.  But if a good person, who is like a 'sweet' 'summer's flower', succumbs to temptation, he falls faster and lower than 'weeds' who had no such goodness, for 'sweetest things turn sourest by their deeds'.  Shakespeare warns all people, and especially good people, to be wary of the temptations of what he calls 'lust' (what we refer to as Barbarism).   
 
THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
 
As the Renaissance spread through Europe in the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries, it was as if men felt their minds awaken to the powerful potential of Man's Mind.  Inspired by the Greek advice to assume nothing and examine everything, people put everything under the microscope of analysis.  When they examined nature, the result was an explosion of scientific discovery and invention.  Examining political and social institutions resulted in the overthrow of monarchy and the American and French Revolutions.  They also put religion in the crucible of analysis and sought scientific evidence for God and a spiritual world 
 
In the following poem, Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-1892) expresses the belief that examination  has the potential to unlock all the secrets of the universe:
 
Flower in the Crannied Wall
Flower in the crannied wall,
I pluck you out of the crannies,
I hold you here, root and all, in my hand,
Little flower - but if I could understand
What you are, root and all, and all in all,
I should know what God and man is.
 
In 'Sonnet on Chillon', Lord Byron (1788-1824) writes about the Chillon prison where many political prisoners were locked up or killed in their struggle against tyranny.  We can see how the popular belief in Mind, Liberty, and Freedom (words all capitalized in the poem) has taken on a religious zeal.  Because of those martyred in this 'holy' struggle, the 'prison is a holy place' and the 'sad floor an altar':
 
Sonnet on Chillon
Eternal Spirit of the chainless Mind!
  Brightest in dungeons, Liberty! thou art:
  For there thy habitation is the heart -
The heart which love of thee alone can bind;
And when thy sons to fetters are consigned -
  To fetters, and the damp vault's dayless gloom,
  Their country conquers with their martyrdom,
And Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind.
Chillon! thy prison is a holy place,
  And thy sad floor an altar - for 't was trod,
Until his very steps have left a trace
  Worn, as if thy cold pavement were a sod,
By Bonnivard! - May none those marks efface!
  For they appeal from tyranny to God.
 
Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861) published 'Sonnets from the Portuguese' in 1850.  Sonnet 43 expresses her love for her husband and fellow poet, Robert Browning.  In the poem we can see her pledge to the ideal of love, her belief in God and the soul ('if God choose', 'My soul can reach'), her commitment to the battle for justice ('I love thee freely, as men strive for Right'), and a hint of a slight disillusion in religion ('I love thee with a love I seemed to lose with my lost saints'):
 
Sonnets From The Portuguese, Sonnet 43
How do I love thee?  Let me count the ways.
I love thee to the depth and breadth and height
My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight
For the ends of Being an ideal Grace.
I love thee to the level of everyday's
Most quiet need, by sun and candle-light.
I love thee freely, as men strive for Right;
I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise.
I love thee with the passion put to use
In my old griefs, and with my childhood's faith.
I love thee with a love I seemed to lose
With my lost saints, - I love thee with the breath,
Smiles, tears, of all my life! - and, if God choose,
I shall but love thee better after death.
 
Note that all three poems so far have mentioned God.  For the first two-thirds of the 19th century, the 'old time religion' and belief in God still held sway, as reflected in this poem by Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-1889) who was a Priest as well as a poet:
 
Pied Beauty
Glory be to God for dappled things -
  For skies of couple-color as a brindled cow;
     For rose-moles all in stipple upon trout that swim;
Fresh-firecoal chestnut-falls; finches' wings;
   Landscape plotted and pieced - fold, fallow, and plow;
     And all trades, their gear and tackle and trim.
 
All things counter, original, spare, strange;
  Whatever is fickle, freckled (who knows how?)
     With swift, slow; sweet, sour; adazzle, dim;
He fathers-forth whose beauty is past change:
         Praise Him.
 
The last third of the 19th century saw a revolution in thought epitomized by Darwin and Nietzsche. Religion and belief in God came under greater attack and ridicule, and it was believed that Man could become the new 'god'.  This heady feeling of mastery can be seen in this poem by William Ernest Henley (1849-1903) written in 1888:
 
Invictus
Out of the night that covers me,
   Black as the Pit from pole to pole,
I thank whatever gods may be
   For my unconquerable soul.
 
 In the fell clutch of circumstance
   I have not winced nor cried aloud.
Under the bludgeonings of chance
   My head is bloody, but unbowed.
 
 Beyond this place of wrath and tears
   Looms but the horror of the shade,
And yet the menace of the years
   Finds, and shall find me, unafraid.
 
 It matters not how strait the gait,
  How charged with punishment the scroll,
I am the master of my fate;
  I am the captain of my soul.
 
THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
 
The 20th century dawned with the enormous hope that Man, after clawing his way Darwinian style to the top of the evolutionary heap, could now use his mind to create a perfect world, without reliance on what many considered the old 'superstitions' of Religion.  The past century had overcome tyranny, unlocked many of nature's secrets, and created a cornucopia of technology.  Since Science had not shown any evidence of God and the spiritual world, and Darwinism mocked the 'fairy tales' of the Bible, many felt they would have to do without the 'crutch' of Religion.  The phrase 'There is no God' is said four times in the poem by John Masefield, written in 1916:
 
There is No God, As I Was Taught
There is no God, as I was taught in youth,
Though each, according to his stature, builds
Some covered shrine for what he thinks the truth,
Which day by day his reddest heart-blood gilds.
 
There is no God; but death, the clasping sea,
In which we move like fish, deep over deep
Made of men's souls that bodies have set free,
Floods to a Justice though it seems asleep.
 
There is no God, but still, behind the veil,
The hurt thing works, out of its agony.
Still, like a touching of a brimming Grail,
Return the pennies given to passers by.
 
There is no God, but we, who breathe the air,
Are God ourselves and touch God everywhere.
 
But alas, the hopes of Utopia were dashed all too soon by World War I.  Many were surprised that Man, discarding Religion and intoxicated with his feeling of strength, instead of ushering in a world filled with Reason opened the floodgates of Barbarism.  The senseless slaughter in Europe certainly didn't feel like Utopia, as expressed by Vachel Lindsay (1879-1931) at the start of World War I:
 
The Leaden-Eyed
Let not young souls be smothered out before
They do quaint deeds and fully flaunt their pride.
It is the world's one crime its babes grow dull,
It's poor are ox-like, limp and leaden-eyed.
Not that they starve, but starve so dreamlessly,
Not that they sow, but that they seldom reap,
Not that they serve, but have no gods to serve,
Not that they die, but that they die like sheep.
 
This 'gloom' and 'brave despair' is captured by Siegried Sassoon, written towards the end of World War I:
 
Picture Show
And still they come and go: and this is all I know -
That from the gloom I watch an endless picture-show,
Where wild or listless faces flicker on their way,
With glad or grievous hearts I'll never understand
Because Time spins so fast, and they've no time to stay
 
 
Beyond the moment's gesture of a lifted hand.
And still, between the shadow and the blinding flame,
The brave despair of men flings onward, ever the same
As in those doom-lit years that wait them, and have been...
And life is just the picture dancing on a screen.
 
With their belief in God diminished and now disillusioned with Man, people lowered their goals, and tried to accept the idea that life's task was merely carving out a small circle of happiness in one's loneliness, as expressed by William Carlos Williams (1883-1963) in 1917:
 
Dance Rusee
If I when my wife is sleeping
and the baby and Kathleen
are sleeping
and the sun is a flame-white disc
in silken mists
above shining trees, -
if I in my north room
dance naked, grotesquely
before my mirror
waving my shirt round my head
and singing softly to myself:
"I am lonely, lonely.
I was born to be lonely,
I am best so!"
If I admire my arms, my face,
my shoulders, flanks, buttocks
against the yellow drawn shades, -
 
Who shall say I am not
the happy genius of my household?
 
Thoughts of Utopia were replaced by concern about world destruction.  Robert Frost (1874-1963) wrote in 1923 that from his vantage point, the 'fire' of desire was more likely to destroy the world than the 'ice' of hate, though both were destructive enough to annihilate the world:
 
Fire And Ice
Some say the world will end in fire,
Some say in ice.
From what I've tasted of desire
I hold with those who favor fire.
But if it had to perish twice,
I think I know enough of hate
To say that for destruction ice
Is also great
And would suffice.
 
Some looked longingly back at times when Religion and belief in God had given man boundaries, strength, support, and direction.  But such longing was generally thought to be intellectually dishonest because Science seemed to have discredited Religion as wishful thinking, unsupported by scientific evidence.  D. H. Lawrence writing in 1929 describes what he suggests might be a possible substitute for religion, an acceptance of this 'immortal chaos':
 
When The Fruit Falls
When the ripe fruit falls
its sweetness distills and trickles away into the veins of the earth.
 
When fulfilled people die
the essential oil of their experience enters
the veins of living space, and adds a glisten
to the atom, to the body of immortal chaos.
 
For space is alive
and it stirs like a swan
whose feathers glisten
silky with oil of distilled experience.
 
The grandness and scope of King David, Shakespeare, and even the 19th century appears to have given way to melancholy.   Many felt that love of God and Man is beyond our ability - or takes too much energy - and we should be honest with each other about these limitations, as seen in this poem by James Agee (1910-1955):
 
"No doubt left..."
No doubt left.  Enough deceiving.
Now I know you do not love.
Now you know I do not love.
Now we know we do not love.
Now more doubt.  No more deceiving.
 
Yet there is pity in us for each other
And better times are almost fresh as true.
The dog returns.  And the man to his mother.
And tides.  And you to me.  And I to you.
 
And we are cowardly kind the cruelest way,
Feeling the cliff unmorsel from our heels
And knowing balance gone, we smile, and stay
A little, whirling our arms like desperate wheels.
 
In the next poem, Weldon Kees (1914-1955) 'thinks about the human condition'. He exhudes an existential feeling of ennui and anomie that became popular in the 40's and 50's.  Life and death is seen as somewhat random and meaningless, similar to items that are swept in and out by with the waves at the beach, where people die and 'old fruit comes in and is left, and dries in the sun':
 
The Beach in August
The day the fat woman
In the bright blue bathing suit
Walked into the water and died,
I thought about the human condition.  Pieces of old fruit
Came in and were left by the tide.
 
What I thought about the human
Condition was this:  old fruit
Comes in and is left, and dries
In the sun.  Another fat woman
In a dull green bathing suit
Dives into the water and dies.
The pulmotors glisten.  It is noon.
 
We dry and die in the sun
While the seascape arranges old fruit,
Coming in with the tide, glistening
At noon.  A woman, moderately stout,
In a nondescript bathing suit,
Swims to a pier.  A tall woman
Steps toward the sea.  One thinks about the human
Condition.  The tide goes in and goes out.
 
So what are we to do with life in such a pointless and empty world?  Kenneth Patchen (1911-1972) suggests that instead of paying attention to the annoying 'girls in heaven' or 'shooting each other',  we should enjoy ourselves and play baseball:
 
The Origin of Baseball
Someone had been walking in and out
Of the world without coming
To much decision about anything.
The sun seemed too hot most of the time.
 
There weren't enough birds around
And the hills had a silly look
When he got on top of one.
The girls in heaven, however, thought
 
Nothing of asking to see his watch
Like you would want someone to tell
A joke - "Time," they'd say, "what's
That mean - time?", laughing with the edges
 
Of their white mouths, like a flutter of paper
In a madhouse.  And he'd stumble over
General Sherman or Elizabeth B.
Browning, muttering, "Can't you keep
 
Your big wings out of the aisle?"  But down
Again, there'd be millions of people without
Enough to eat and men with guns just
Standing there shooting each other.
 
So he wanted to throw something
And he picked up a baseball.
 
Again we have the feeling of the aimlessness of life, with people not 'coming to much decision about anything.'  The lefthanded allusion to a possible spiritual world is trivialized into 'girls of heaven' (assumedly angels) that just annoy people with their irritating jokes about time, and laugh 'with the edges of their white mouths, like a flutter of paper in a madhouse.'  In this context, preoccupation with baseball and other such diversions seems as good a solution to boredom as any.
 
Then came World War II, with a greater display of Barbarism than history had ever seen.  Instead of providing the tools for Utopia, Science provided the tools to kill people by the tens of millions.  The 'ism's that were produced by Man's Reason, instead of leading us to peace and harmony, gave Barbarians the rationale to kill and destroy in the name of progress.  While the intelligentsia disparaged belief in God, and Science and Religion squabbled, Barbarism flourished. Though one could argue that it was people who abandoned Religion and used Reason to justify Barbarism, some blamed what happened on God being 'indifferent', as seen in this poem by Richard Eberhart (1904-) written in 1944 towards the end of World War II:
 
The Fury of Aerial Bombardment (3 of 4 stanzas)
You would think the fury of aerial bombardment
Would rouse God to relent; the infinite spaces
Are still silent.  He looks on shock-pried faces.
History, even, does not know what is meant.
 
You would feel that after so many centuries
God would give man to repent; yet he can kill
As Cain could, but with multitudinous will,
No farther advanced than in his ancient furies.
 
Was man made stupid to see his own stupidity?
Is God by definition indifferent, beyond us all?
Is the eternal truth man's fighting soul
Wherein the Beast ravens in its own avidity?
 
Eberhart is suggesting that despite Man's attempts to advance by means of Religion and Reason, perhaps the Barbarian is destined to triumph because the 'Beast' is 'no farther advanced than in his ancient furies'.
 
Some sought refuge in drugs, but that seemed to be a dead end as chronicled by Allen Ginsburg in this poem that became the anthem of the 'beat' movement:
 
Howl (only first few lines)
I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness, starving
               hysterical naked,
dragging themselves through the negro streets at dawn looking for
               an angry fix,
angelheaded hipsters burning for the ancient heavenly connection to
               the starry dynamo in the machinery of night,
who poverty and tatters and hollow-eyed and high sat up smoking in
               the supernatural darkness of cold-water flats floating across
               the tops of cities contemplating jazz
 
So what are we left with? What happened to the grand visions of the 19th century, predicting that Man's great capacity for Reason and Love were supposed to blossom?  Not much, 'because the world has failed us', as seen in this poem by Charles Bukowski    (1920- ):
 
The Tragedy of the Leaves
I awakened to dryness and the ferns were dead
the potted plants yellow as corn;
my woman was gone
and the empty bottles like bled corpses
surrounded me with their uselessness;
the sun was still good, though,
and my landlady's note cracked in fine and
undemanding yellowness; what was needed now
was a good comedian, ancient style, a jester
with jokes upon absurd pain; pain is absurd
because it exists, nothing more;
I shaved carefully with an old razor
the man who had once been young and
said to have genius; but
that's the tragedy of the leaves,
the dead ferns, the dead plants;
and I walked into the dark hall
where the landlady stood
execrating and final,
sending me to hell,
waving her fat sweaty arms
and screaming
screaming for rent
because the world had failed us
both.
 
Not only do people despair at loving God with King David's passion, but look what has happened to Shakespeare's love between men and women, as expressed by Richard Brautigan (1935- ):
 
Romeo and Juliet
If you will die for me,
I will die for you
 
and our graves will
be like two lovers washing
their clothes together
in a laundromat.
 
If you will bring the soap,
I will bring the bleach.
 
We want to include some words from a few popular songs, though they may not be great poetry, to give the flavor of our current popular culture.  Here are excerpts from two songs by The Beastie Boys from an album that sold four million copies a few years ago. 
 
Fight for Your Right To Party
Your pop caught you smoking and he said, "No way."
That hypocrite smokes two packs a day
Man, living at home is such a drag
Now your mom threw away your best porno mag (Bust it!)
 
You gotta fight
For your right
To party
 
Rhymin' and Stealin'
Torchin' and crackin' and rhymin' and stealin'
Robbin' and rapin', bustin' two in the ceiling
I'm wheelin', I'm dealin', I'm drinkin', not thinkin'
Never cower, never shower, and I'm always stinkin'
Yo ho ho and a pint of Brass Monkey
And when my girlie shakes her hips, she sure gets funky
We drink and rob and rhyme and pillage
 
Looking back on the twentieth century, we can see that Religion has been hurt by the skepticism of Science, and Science has not been successful in keeping the Barbarian at bay, as evidenced by the two World Wars.  This has shaken Man's confidence in Religion and Science, the two great pillars of civilization.  We see this disappointment reflected in modern poetry, exhibiting a mental state that a psychologist might diagnose as 'clinically depressed'. 
 
Perhaps the Beastie Boys glorify 'party'ing and romanticize the Barbarism of pirates as an antidote to this depression.  Our popular culture may give Barbarism legitimacy and credibility because it doesn't find suitable alternative heros from a Religion and Science that it feels has been discredited.  However, both Reason and Religion traditionally warn us about the dangers of a society that legitimizes Barbarism.
 
CODA: THE NEED FOR AN ALLIANCE
 
It seems that Man's Reason has failed to bring about Utopia.  Possibly Science's ridicule of Religion and God unwittingly took the shackles off the internal and external Barbarian, unleashing the forces of Barbarism that has caused so much destruction by war and deterioration to our society.  If Science could reevaluate its evidence and accept the possible existence of a spiritual world and God, then an alliance with Religion could be re-forged reminiscent of the Age of Enlightenment. 
 
We feel Superstring Theory can help move us in this direction. Superstring Theory is a preeminent scientific theory that suggests there are six non-physical dimensions.  We have shown that several symbols in the Bible indicate the same idea.  If this similarity is more than a coincidence, then Science may finally have evidence of the 'spiritual world' that Religion has always spoken of.  Such mutual credibility may make it no longer necessary for Science to make fun of Religion in order to consider itself intellectually honest.
 
Science and Religion represent two of Mankind's great intellectual achievements, and they have a great deal to offer each other.  An alliance could provide a sort of 'support group', with each helping to examine for ways that Barbarism may have cunningly infiltrated into their actions and beliefs.  Man's capacity for self-deception is great, and the wiles and guile of Barbarism can be seductive. 
 
History shows that Barbarism has often wormed its way into Religion.  Examples are the  Crusades, the Inquisition, religious intolerance and fanaticism, and the many religious wars.  We can also point to materialism in religious circles, and those who abuse the power of religious organizations for self-aggrandizement.  We maintain that these are the results of crafty Barbarism, always looking for new ways to satisfy its own selfish desires.  Such Barbarism is anathema to the Religious person who feels the love and fear of God expressed by King David's Psalms. 
 
Those who align themselves with the Scientific orientation should also look within themselves.  Embracing Religion means taking a stand against the many ways that Barbarism has seeped into our culture. While intellectually admitting that Barbarism has pernicious effects, it might be emotionally tempting to continuing to shun Religion because it's hard to give up the thrill that Barbarism offers. The taste of Barbarism, once savored, is sometimes hard to renounce.  This is also a struggle that many Religious people face on a daily basis.
 
The world needs Science and Religion to stop its bickering, and to respect each other once again, even if they can't agree on all points. Perhaps such cooperation and mutual respect will enable us to rein in our common enemy, the Barbarism that is threatening us all. 
 
We should not ignore and fall prey to the admonition Shakespeare penned in Sonnet 129:
 
All this the world well knows; yet none knows well
To shun the heaven that leads men to this hell.